Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion

By Joshua D. Angrist; Jörn-Steffen Pischke | Go to book overview

Chapter 8
Nonstandard Standard Error Issues

We have normality. I repeat, we have normality.
Anything you still can't cope with is therefore your own
problem.

Douglas Adams, The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy

Today, software packages routinely compute asymptotic standard errors derived under weak assumptions about the sampling process or underlying model. For example, you get regression standard errors based on formula (3.1.7) using the Stata option robust. Robust standard errors improve on old-fashioned standard errors because the resulting inferences are asymptotically valid when the regression residuals are heteroskedastic, as they almost certainly are when regression approximates a nonlinear conditional expectation function (CEF). In contrast, old-fashioned standard errors are derived assuming homoskedasticity. The hangup here is that estimates of robust standard errors can be misleading when the asymptotic approximation that justifies these estimates is not very good. The first part of this chapter looks at the failure of asymptotic inference with robust standard error estimates and some simple palliatives.

A pillar of traditional cross section inference—and the discussion in section 3.1.3—is the assumption that the data are independent. Each observation is treated as a random draw from the same population, uncorrelated with the observation before or after. We understand today that this sampling model is unrealistic and potentially even foolhardy. Much as in the time series studies common in macroeconomics, cross section analysts must worry about correlation between observations. The most important form of dependence arises

-293-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Mostly Harmless Econometrics: An Empiricist's Companion
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Figures vii
  • Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Organization of This Book xvii
  • Part I - Preliminaries 1
  • Chapter 1 - Questions About Questions 3
  • Chapter 2 - The Experimental Ideal 11
  • Part II - The Core 25
  • Chapter 3 - Making Regression Make Sense 27
  • Chapter 4 - Instrumental Variables in Action: Sometimes You Get What You Need 113
  • Chapter 5 - Parallel Worlds: Fixed Effects, Differences-In-Differences, and Panel Data 221
  • Part III - Extensions 249
  • Chapter 6 - Getting a Little Jumpy: Regression Discontinuity Designs 251
  • Chapter 7 - Quantile Regression 269
  • Chapter 8 - Nonstandard Standard Error Issues 293
  • Last Words 327
  • Acronyms and Abbreviations 329
  • Empirical Studies Index 335
  • References 339
  • Index 361
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 373

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.