Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic?

By Fritz W. Scharpf | Go to book overview

CHAPTER 2
Negative and Positive Integration

After the Second World War, the reintegration of European national economies into a larger, transnational context proceeded at two levels, global and regional. At both levels, the process did not just occur, but was driven by the explicit, and at times highly controversial, policy choices of the governments involved. Some of these were taken unilaterally, as was true of the early decisions by some countries to make their currencies freely convertible, and to abolish capital export controls. Others were taken jointly, but under the compulsion of uncontrollable external pressures, as was true in the early 1970s of the departure from the Bretton Woods regime of fixed exchange rates (Kapstein 1994). But by and large the economic fragmentation of the early post-war years was overcome through two parallel processes of collective decision-making. One, proceeding under American leadership through a series of GATT negotiations, aimed at the establishment of a world-wide free-trade regime; the economic goal of the other one was regional integration in (Western) Europe. Even though this book focuses on the political implications of European integration, the economic 'globalization' resulting from the first of these processes constitutes an important, and dynamically changing, background condition which needs to be kept in mind in all accounts of the political economy of European integration.

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Governing in Europe: Effective and Democratic?
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgements v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures viii
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - Political Democracy in a Capitalist Economy 6
  • Chapter 2 - Negative and Positive Integration 43
  • Chapter 3 - Regulatory Competition and Re-Regulation 84
  • Chapter 4 - National Solutions Without Boundary Control 121
  • Chapter 5 - The European Contribution 156
  • Conclusion: Multi-Level Problem-Solving in Europe 187
  • References 205
  • Index 231
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