1. Gosse, "Character of Queen Victoria," p. 302.
2. In his study of royal ceremonials, "The Context, Performance, and Meaning of Ritual," Cannadine echoes other historians when he observes that "the deliberate, ceremonial presentation of an impotent but venerated monarch as a unifying symbol of permanence and national community became both possible and necessary" (12 2). How politically impotent Queen Victoria was is debatable, but her imaginative power reigns to our own day, sometimes eclipsing that of her living descendants. Cannadine's recent projects promise to stimulate reassessments of Victoria.
3. Bagehot, The English Constitution, p. 88.
4. Ibid., p. 100
5. Turner, "Frame, Flow, and Reflection," p. 33.
6. Turner, Anthropology of Performance, p. 22.
7. In " 'To the Queen's Private Apartments,' " Homans focuses on Victoria's construction as a wife-queen, a useful role that occupied one-third of her reign. For the delineation of middle-class values that depended on setting up a (fictional) distinction between public and private, see Davidoff and Hall, Family Fortunes, and for challenges to their work, see Wahrman, " 'Middle-Class' Domesticity Goes Public."
8. Some studies describing women's place in defining the Victorian sense of the social order inform my thinking: Armstrong, Desire and Domestic Fiction; Auerbach, Woman and the Demon; Barickman, MacDonald, and Stark, Corrupt Relations; Poovey, Uneven Developments; Sedgwick, Between Men; and Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight.