1. Roland Barthes, "The Discourse of History," in Comparative Criticism: A Yearbook, 3, ed. E. S. Shaffer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 11.
2. Catherine Belsey, Critical Practice (London: Routledge, 1980), 68–69.
3. John Banville, Ghosts (New York: Knopf, 1993), 47.
4. Arthur O. Lovejoy, Essays in the History of Ideas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1948), xv-xvi.
5. Lovejoy, Essays, xvi.
6. Michel de Certeau, The Writing of History, trans. Tom Conley (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988), 75.
7. Franklin R. Ankersmit, History and Tropology: The Rise and Fall of Metaphor (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1994), 128.
8. Edward Gibbon, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ed. J. B. Bury (London: Methuen 1909; rpt., AMS 1974). All references will appear in parentheses in the text by volume and page number.
9. His conclusion to the iconoclast controversy seems to turn the Reformation into a manifesto of secular humanism: "The worship of images was inseparably blended, at least to a pious fancy, with the Cross, the Virgin, the saints, and their relics; the holy ground was involved in a cloud of miracles and visions; and the nerves of the mind, curiosity and scepticism, were benumbed by the habits of obedience and belief. … In the reformation of the sixteenth century, freedom and knowledge had expanded all the faculties of man, the thirst of innovation superseded the reverence of antiquity, and the vigour of Europe could disdain those phantoms which terrified the sickly and servile weaknesses of the Greeks" (DF, 5:270–71).
10. Lionel Gossman, The Empire Unpossess'd: An Essay on Gibbon's Decline and Fall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 82.
11. Claude Lévi-Strauss, The Savage Mind (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), 252.
12. Sande Cohen, Historical Culture: On the Recording of an Academic Discipline (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1986), 63.
13. Cohen, Historical Culture, 67.
14. Franklin Ankersmit, Narrative Logic: A Semantic Analysis of the Historian's Language (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1983), 86.
15. Ankersmit, Narrative Logic, 87.
16. Allan Megill, "'Grand Narrative' and the Discipline of History," in .4 New Philosophy of History, ed. Frank Ankersmit and Hans Kellner (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 172.
17. Lévi-Strauss, The Savage Mind, 253–54.
18. Ibid., 257.