Dynamics of Language Contact: English and Immigrant Languages

By Michael Clyne | Go to book overview

2 Dynamics of language shift

2.1 Introduction
In this chapter, we are dealing with the macrolevel of language. In order to discuss the structural changes that occur in an immigrant language, we need to see the changes as part of a process of gradual, slower or more rapid shift from one language to another. In the present chapter, Australian data will be used to illustrate the dynamics of language shift from immigrant languages to English.1 Some of the data that I will be studying is based on responses to the same census question at the same time (though not at the same time of people's migration history) in the same places. An attempt will also be made to view similar sets of data diachronically. In particular, this chapter will consider some of the factors promoting or impeding language shift and influencing the differential shift rates in different ethnolinguistic communities.2 This data will be supplemented by studies of language use patterns. Various models will be considered to explain processes and mechanisms of language shift in the context of place, time and community. This is the field that owes much of its development to the innovative work of Joshua Fishman.First let us elucidate the meanings that are given to 'language shift'.
i. It can refer to the language behaviour of a whole community, a sub-group within it, or an individual.
ii. It can mean a gradual process, a 'shifting', as has been described for the replacement of Hungarian by German in Oberwart in the Austrian state of Burgenland (Gal 1979). However, it can also mean that a language previously employed by an individual or group is no longer used at all by them.
iii. It can designate a change in:
a. the main language;
b. the dominant language of an individual or a group;
c. the language of one or more domains–contextualized spheres of communication–such as home, work, school, church;
d. the exclusive language for between one and three of the four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing).

-20-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Dynamics of Language Contact: English and Immigrant Languages
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Map and Figures vii
  • Tables viii
  • Series Editor's Foreword xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Abbreviations xiv
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • 2: Dynamics of Language Shift 20
  • 3: On Models and Terms 70
  • 4: Dynamics of Convergence and Transference 103
  • 5: Dynamics of Transversion 159
  • 6: Dynamics of Plurilingual Processing 193
  • 7: Dynamics of Cultural Values in Contact Discourse 215
  • 8: Towards a Synthesis 234
  • Notes 243
  • References 248
  • Index of Authors 273
  • Index of Languages 278
  • Index of Subjects 280
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 282

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

    Already a member? Log in now.