1. Also partly in its sequel, Jacobson (2001).
2. Space does not permit the consideration of dialect contact. Dialect–standard switching operates on the principles outlined in chapter 5 (Giesbers 1989).
3. For the purpose of this study, 'Dutch–German–English' (etc.) will include trilinguals with these languages, irrespective of acquisition order, which will be stated.
4. The data used here from Tuc Ho-Dac is a sample chosen by him because it contains examples of the phenomena under consideration.
5. There are exceptions such as Molisan-Croatian which is disappearing from its eastern Italian coastal heartland and about half its remaining speakers are in Western Australia (Clissa 2001).
6. We also have similar data from South Australia and southern New South Wales.
7. This has affected adversely the number of secondary schools teaching Greek and in turn the proficiency levels.
8. Except as a subject in mainstream schools; see below.
9. The hard line on asylum seekers taken by the Howard government re-elected in 2001 is not necessarily indicative of a position on internal multiculturalism.
1. Some of the data discussed in this chapter is treated in Clyne and Kipp (1997).
2. Logistic regression analysis was not undertaken because preliminary tests indicated that none of the correlations between the independent variables and the dependent variables achieved a value of 0.3 or above (Coakes and Steed 1997).
3. The same question was repeated in the August 2001 Census. At the time of writing, no information was available from this census. However, as parents' countries of birth were not elicited in 2001, it will not be possible to estimate second-generation language shift from the 2001 Census data.
4. The first wave of refugees from Vietnam were speakers of Chinese varieties.
5. Hirst (2001) notes an intergenerational decline in Greek-Orthodox affiliation among Greek-Australians–90% first generation, 82% second, 45% third.
6. A similar study is in progress under the direction of Guus Extra across five European cities–Göteborg, Hamburg, Lyon, Madrid and The Hague–comparing language competence, choice, dominance, preference and vitality among young people of several language communities.