Since 1995, this project has evolved from a master's thesis into a doctoral thesis and now into a book. Along the way, I have incurred numerous debts. Louise Fawcett was an excellent supervisor, whose careful reading and incisive comments sharpened my thinking on every facet of this work. Richard Crockatt first sparked my interest in the Roosevelt era when I was an undergraduate at UEA, and has offered me much encouragement and advice ever since. In the past three years, Roberto Franzosi's boundless enthusiasm and energy have also been a constant source of inspiration.
At Oxford, I have greatly benefited from the ideas, suggestions, and support of many people. I would like to thank my D.Phil. examiner, Bob O'Neill, for his helpful criticisms, and Rosemary Foot, Andrew Hurrell, Yuen Foong Kong, Neil MacFarlane, and Jonathan Wright, who at various stages have commented on different aspects of this work. Raymond Cohen and Avi Shlaim have both been very supportive. This book has also been greatly improved as a result of the careful evaluation by Waldo H. Heinrichs and Nicholas J. Cull.
This project almost came to an abrupt halt in the summer of 1996. I am extremely grateful to Adam Roberts, whose support, advice, and encouragement proved invaluable during that difficult period, and to Jesus College, Oxford, which elected me to a graduate scholarship in September 1996. This provided me with the income, time, and a congenial environment in which to complete the bulk of the research and writing. Research in the United States was also made possible by a British Association of American Studies Marcus Cunliffe grant.
Since October 1998, I have been a Junior Research Fellow at Trinity College, Oxford. The friendly atmosphere at Trinity has made the task of completing the final draft of this book an enjoyable experience. I would also like to thank my students, and especially the class of 2000, whose enthusiasm for the subject helped to sustain my own interest during the period in which the bulk of this book was rewritten.
Many friends have helped in important ways. I first experienced America with Stephen Bromberg. Alex Kershaw first showed me how to write. Michael Fullilove tracked down a number of important documents. Wolfram