This work would not have been possible without my mentor, Dr. Kenneth T. Jackson. It was he who suggested I write a dissertation on the Bronx and made sure I finished it. Years afterward, he urged me to enlarge the scope of the study and again pushed me to complete the manuscript. I am grateful beyond words. I also want to thank Dr. Michael Ebner, who introduced me to urban history, and Dr. Joel Schwartz, whose dissertation on Morrisania paved the way for my research. Two others deserve special mention: Leonora Gidlund, deputy director of the New York City Municipal Archives and a close friend, was always there with encouragement and cheer; and Dr. Isabel Tirado, dean of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences at William Paterson University of New Jersey and also a friend, drove me on constantly. I also want to acknowledge the help of countless archivists and librarians, from my friend Director Kenneth Cobb of the New York City Municipal Archives to Laura Tosi and Peter Derrick of the Bronx County Historical Society.