Sources are cited in abridged form after the first occurrence. For complete information, see the Bibliography.
Epigraphs: Plato, The Republic, trans. Benjamin Jowett, book VI (Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 2000); Mao Zedong, in Stuart Schram, The Political Thought of Mao Tsetung (New York: Praeger, 1963), p. 352.
1. Notably: Correspondents of The Economist, Consider Japan (London: G. Duckworth, 1963).
2. Resolution on CPC History (1949–1981) (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981), p.32.
3. See Roderick MacFarquhar, The Origins of the Cultural Revolution, 3 vols. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974, 1983, 1997) (hereafter Origins).
4. The Polemic on the General Line of the International Communist Movement (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965), p. 59.
5. See William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: Norton, 2003), pp. 270–289. The secret speech soon found its way to the Central Intelligence Agency, which passed it on to the New York Times, which published it on June 4, 1956. In Moscow the Chinese delegation to the CPSU had received only an oral report of its contents; it got the full text from a Xinhua (New China News Agency) translation of the New York Times text; Wu Lengxi, Shinian lunzhan, 1956–1966: Zhong Su guanxi huiyilu (A Decade of Polemics, 1956–1966: A Memoir of Sino-Soviet Relations), 2 vols. (Beijing: Zhongyang wenxian chubanshe, 1999), 1:3–4. Wu incorrectly states that the New York Times version appeared on March 10; he must be referring to extracts from Khrushchev's speech carried by Western news agencies that were discussed by Mao and senior leaders on March 18 at a meeting that Wu attended; Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi, ed., Zhou Enlai nianpu, 1949–1976 (Chronicle of the Life of Zhou Enlai, 1949–1976), 3 vols.