Citizenship values and desistance
Why study citizenship and crime?
A criminologically informed notion of citizenship
Socialization and resocialization towards citizenship values
Desistance and citizenship
Operationalizing and measuring citizenship
Accounting for the relationship between citizenship values and desistance
Here's the deal here. Hugh Benny has reformed his wayward life and
has become a born-again Good Citizen.
(Vincent Hannah, Heat, 1996, Michael Mann)
In Michael Mann's film Heat, the mean-talking police detective Vincent Hannah, as part of an ongoing case and in order to extract information relating to that investigation, assaults a known 'face', Hugh Benny. Having extracted the information he needs, Hannah then calls one of his colleagues to relay what he has learnt from Benny. Benny lies at Hannah's feet, bloody and bruised, looking semi-conscious whilst Hannah utters the lines above. Benny's 'reform' looks enforced and he himself hardly looks the model of a 'good citizen'. In the film, we neither see nor hear of Benny again. His 'reform', such that it was, remains problematic for all sorts of reasons.
Recently, the relationship between being a 'good citizen' and one's involvement (or otherwise) in crime has drawn much interest from criminologists (e.g. Young, 1999; McNeill, 2000; Karstedt and Farrall, forthcoming). Despite the inherent 'logic' of exploring the relationship between citizenship and engagement in offending, very few of these authors explicitly outline why they believe it important (or relevant) to link the concept of citizenship with patterns of offending. In many respects too, we feel, these investigations are carried out in absentia from the messiness and complexities of data and, to some degree therefore,