A S THE GREAT MASS of manuscript material which has been used in writing this book is housed at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, I am indebted to Catherine H. Miller and J. Harcourt Givens of the Manuscript Division for their very kind and untiring assistance.
In like manner I am indebted to members of the staffs of the Cornell University Library, the University of Pennsylvania Library, Friends Library in Philadelphia, Ridgway Library, the New York Historical Society, and Yale University Library. My very frequent visits to the Library of the American Philosophical Society, the Public Records Division at Harrisburg, and the New York Public Library make me especially indebted to Ruth Duncan, Henry Howard Eddy, Colonel Henry Shoemaker, Lewis M. Stark, Percy E. Clapp, and Sylvester Vigilante.
For favors I am owing to Professor Paul W. Gates of Cornell University, Professor Richard H. Shryock of Johns Hopkins University, and Dr. Edward Riley, Historian of Independence National Park, Dr. Paul A. W. Wallace, Editor of Pennsylvania History, and Professors Edward Fuhlbruegge and Hubert G. Schmidt of Rutgers University.
For grants in aid for conducting my research I wish to thank the Social Science Research Council and the Research Council of Rutgers University.
I am deeply grateful for the enouragement and help given by Professor Roy F. Nichols of the University of Pennsylvania and by Dr. Sylvester K. Stevens, Pennsylvania State Historian. I wish also to thank Doctor Stevens, Donald H. Kent, Associate Historian, and the staff of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission under whose guidance this book has been published.