The Rise and Fall of Anglo-America

By Eric P. Kaufmann | Go to book overview

6
Cosmopolitan Clerics: The
Role of Ecumenical
Protestantism

The Liberal Progressives finally shattered the contradictions of doubleconsciousness during 1900–1910. At the same time, the pioneering role played by these Victorian humanitarians must be placed in its proper perspective. Secular Settlement workers and practitioners of the New Social Science in the elite universities did not have the ear of the wider national culture until World War II. Instead, this privilege belonged to the Protestant churches, whose tentacles reached into every hamlet in the country.


Divisions within the Social Gospel Movement

The Social Gospel movement provided the seedbed from which both conservative and liberal variants of equality could emerge. The mainstream of the movement was conservative on many cultural fronts, but increasingly a more liberal strain of thought was emerging.1 The first outlet for a more liberated Social Gospel was, as we saw, the liberal wing of the Settlement movement, which was staffed mostly by liberal Protestants rather than secular atheists. Another outlet for the rising volume of leftwing religious liberalism was provided by home mission agencies. These played a role analogous to that of the Settlement, and, not surprisingly, their approach to questions of immigration and national identity closely paralleled that of the Settlement movement.


Home Missions and the New Immigration

The Social Gospel movement, which germinated in the theological seminaries of the nation, quickly expanded outward in the late nineteenth century, embracing philanthropic activity designed to bring about social

-111-

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The Rise and Fall of Anglo-America
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • 1: Introduction 1
  • I - The Wasp Ascendancy 9
  • 2: The Rise of Anglo-America 11
  • 3: Limited Liberals 37
  • 4: Conservative Egalitarians 58
  • II - The Cosmopolitan Vanguard, 1900–1939 83
  • 5: Pioneers of Equality 85
  • 6: Cosmopolitan Clerics 111
  • 7: Expressive Pathfinders 144
  • III - The Fall of Anglo-America 175
  • 8: Cosmopolitanism Institutionalized, 1930–1970 177
  • 9: The Decline of Anglo-America 207
  • 10: Cultural Modernization 244
  • 11: American Whiteness 258
  • 12: Liberal Ethnicity and Cultural Revival 283
  • 13: Conclusion 305
  • Notes 315
  • References 329
  • Acknowledgments 363
  • Index 365
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