How It Works: Science and Technology - Vol. 18

By Wendy Horobin | Go to book overview

Tire

The pneumatic tire was invented by a Scot, R. W. Thomson, and first patented by him in 1845. A set of tires made according to Thomson's design was fitted to a horse-drawn carriage and covered more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) before it needed replacing. It was not until nearly 50 years later, however, that the tire industry was founded by J. B. Dunlop, an Irishman from Belfast.

A vehicle tire consists of an inner layer of fabric plies that are wrapped around bead wires at their inner edges. The bead wires hold the tire in position on the wheel rim. The fabric plies are coated with rubber, which is molded to form the sidewalk and the tread of the tire. There are two main types of tires. In the cross-ply, or bias, tire, the plies run diagonally from bead to bead, making an angle of around 40 degrees to the beads. Successive plies run in opposite directions to give a crisscross pattern. With the radial-ply tire, the plies run directly from bead to bead at 90 degrees to the tire circumference. Tread-bracing layers, or belts, are fitted around the circumference of the tire between the radial plies and the tread. The radial-ply design offers significantly better cornering and wear characteristics than the bias tire and is rapidly replacing it for automotive use. Some of the advantages of the radial-ply tire are offered by the bias-belted tire that has cross plies with a tread belt.

Making a tire involves three separate stages: preparation of the components, assembly into the shape of a tire, and heating with sulfur in a suitable

Tire production involves
three separate stages:
fabric preparation,
preparation of the rubber
mixes, and the actual
building of the tire. The
mixes are made first, and
then the compounded
rubber is braced with
steel and fabric before
moving on to the
building, molding, and
completion stages.

-2453-

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How It Works: Science and Technology - Vol. 18
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page *
  • Contents Volume 18 *
  • Tire 2453
  • Toilet 2457
  • Tool Manufacture 2460
  • Toothpaste 2466
  • Torpedo 2467
  • Tracked Vehicle 2469
  • Traction Engine 2472
  • Transducer and Sensor 2474
  • Transformer 2477
  • Transistor 2480
  • Transition Element 2485
  • Transmission, Automobile 2489
  • Transmission, Broadcasting 2493
  • Transplant 2498
  • Truck 2505
  • Tsunami 2509
  • Tunneling 2512
  • Turbine 2517
  • Typewriter 2521
  • Ultralight Aircraft 2524
  • Ultrasonics 2528
  • Ultraviolet Lamp 2533
  • Undercarriage, Retractable 2535
  • Undersea Habitat 2537
  • Underwater Photography 2541
  • Universal Joint 2544
  • Uranium 2546
  • Urology 2549
  • V/Stol Aircraft 2551
  • Vaccine 2554
  • Vacuum 2558
  • Vacuum Cleaner 2561
  • Vacuum Tube 2563
  • Valve, Mechanical 2566
  • Vapor Pressure 2569
  • Vault Construction 2571
  • Vending Machine 2575
  • Veneer 2578
  • Venturi Effect 2580
  • Vernier Scale 2582
  • Veterinary Science and Medicine 2583
  • Video Camera 2589
  • Index i
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