RESEARCH FOR THIS VOLUME WAS MADE POSSIBLE IN PART BY grants and fellowships from the Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute (Hyde Park, NY), the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library Association (West Branch, IA), the Harry S. Truman Library Institute (Independence, MO), the John Nicholas Brown Center for the Study of American Civilization of Brown University (Providence, RI), and the joint exchange program of the History Departments of Brown University and the University of Florence in Italy. Besides the organizations and institutions that provided funds for this study, the author wishes to thank all the people who supported and encouraged the research on which this book is based and, specifically, Joyce Botelho, Philip V. Cannistraro, George Cotkin, Ira A. Glazier, Richard N. Juliani, Anna Maria Martellone, William Pencak, and Rudolph J. Vecoli. As usually happens with studies based on primary sources, a number of librarians and archivists offered invaluable assistance. The staff at the Rhode Island Historical Society was especially helpful, as well as those at the Rhode Island State Archives, the Providence Public Library, and the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library at Brown University. Key assistance was received in particular from Veronica Park, Renato Radassao, and Cecilia Trevisan at the Biblioteca di Storia e Letteratura Nordamericana of the University of Florence, Deborah [Alex] Dunwoodie at the John Nicholas Brown Center for the Study of American Civilization, John Myers and Carol Pace at the Providence City Archives, Jane Jackson at the Phillips Memorial Library of Providence College, Sarina Wyant at the University of Rhode Island Library, Mary M. Wolfskill at the Library of Congress, Mark Brown and Patricia Sirois at the John Hay Library, Wade R. Slinde at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library, Verne W. Newton at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, Dennis E. Bilger at the Harry S. Truman Library, John D. Stinson at the New York Public Library, and Carolyn Davis at the Ernest Stevenson Bird Library.