1. George M. Fredrickson, “A Man but Not a Brother: Abraham Lincoln and Racial Equality”, Journal of Southern History, 41 (1975), 39–58.
2. In my article I accepted, albeit with some uncertainty, the testimony of General Benjamin F. Butler that Lincoln was giving favorable consideration to Butler’s scheme to send freed African Americans to Panama, where they could be employed in digging a canal. Since this alleged exchange took place late in the war, it suggested to me that Lincoln never fully abandoned his hopes of eliminating or alleviating “the race problem,” by colonizing blacks outside of the United States. But