Motivation, academic performance, and the challenge of promoting creativity
Giovanni B. Moneta and Christy M. Y. Siu
Intrinsic motivation is the tendency to engage in tasks because one finds them interesting, challenging, involving, and satisfying. Extrinsic motivation is the tendency to engage in tasks because of task-unrelated factors such as promise of rewards and punishments, dictates from superiors, surveillance, and competition with peers (Deci and Ryan 1985).
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can be viewed both as state variables, that can vary across situations and times and can be manipulated experimentally, and as trait variables, representing crosssituationally and temporally stable individual tendencies to be intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Thus, although a person's levels of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation fluctuate during daily activities as a function of environmental stimuli and opportunities, people differ in