VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE
THERAPY OF COMBAT-RELATED
PTSD: A CASE STUDY USING
INDICATORS OF OUTCOME
Barbara Olasov Rothbaum, Anna Marie Ruef, Brett T. Litz, Hyemee Han, and Larry Hodges
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pervasive and chronic disorder in veterans of the Vietnam War (Kulka, et al., 1990; Weiss et al., 1992). Although research has demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatments in reducing symptoms of PTSD in veterans (e.g., Keane, Fairbanks, Caddell, & Zimmering, 1989a), many veterans remain untreated or are unresponsive to treatment (Kulka et al., 1990). Treatment is generally time intensive and demanding, especially exposure therapy, which requires considerable therapist expertise and resources. Participants are generally not thought to be good candidates for exposure ther
This research was supported by NIMH Grant R41 MH60015–01 awarded to the first author. We
wish to thank Dr. Mark Miller, who programmed and prepared the psychophysiological proce-
dures for the study. We also thank Jason Hall and Mathew Jakupcak for their assistance.
Disclosure Statement: Drs. Rothbaum and Hodges receive research funding and are entitled to
sales royalty from Virtually Better, Inc., which is developing products related to the research
described in this article. In addition, they serve as consultants to and own equity in Virtually
Better, Inc. The terms of this arrangement have been reviewed and approved by Emory University
and Georgia Institute of Technology in accordance with their conflict of interest policies.