Note: Japanese titles have been translated except in the cases of newspapers (shimbun), where the translation of names produces awkwardness rather than understanding.
11. Michael Cooper, ed., They Came to Japan: An Anthology of European reports on Japan, 1543–1640 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965), 60.
12. H. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture, Third Edition (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1984), 21.
13. Basil Hall Chamberlain, Japanese Things (Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1971), 1.
14. Jay Rubin, Injurious to Public Morals: Writers and the Meiji State (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1984), 18. Reprinted by permission of the University of Washington Press.
15. Irokawa Daikichi, The Culture of the Meiji Period (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1985), 151–152.
17. Edward H. House letter to Whitelaw Reid, Sept. 21, 1870, in Reid Papers, Library of Congress.
21. The Island of Japon : João Rodrigues' Account of 16th Century Japan, trans. Michael Cooper (Tokyo: Kodansha International Ltd; 1973), 65–66, 69.
22. Cooper, They Came to Japan, 55–56.
22–23. Ihara Saikaku, Tales of Samurai Honor, trans. Caryl Ann Callahan (Tokyo: Monumenta Nipponica, 1981), 33–34.
23. George Elison, Deus Destroyed: The Image of Christianity in Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, Mass.: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1973), 335–337.
24–25. Ibid., 193–194. Reprinted by permission of the Harvard University Asia Center. © The President and Fellows of Harvard College, 1973.
26. Engelbert Kaempfer, Kaempfer's Japan: Tokugawa Culture Observed. (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1999), 188–89. Note: Kaempfer used the lessstandard spelling [Deshima] instead of [Dejima.]
27. Ibid., 364–365.
29–30. Samuel H. Yamashita, Master Sorai's Responsals: An Annotated Translation of Sorai sensei tomonsho (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994), 40, 64–65, 68–69.
31–32. David J. Lu, Japan: A Documentary History (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1997), 206–208. Translation copyright © 1997 by David J. Lu. Reprinted with permission of M. E. Sharpe Inc.
32. Ibid., 208. Translation copyright © 1997 by David J. Lu. Reprinted with permission of M. E. Sharpe Inc.
33–34. Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai, ed. Man'yōshū (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965), 29.
34–35. Lady Murasaki Shikibu, The Tale of Genji, trans. Edward G. Seidensticker (New York: Vintage Classics, 1990), 3–4. © 1976 by Edward G. Seidensticker. Used by permission of Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House, Inc.
35. Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore DeBary, and Donald Keene, Sources of Japanese Tradition, I (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), 329–330.
36. Ackroyd, Joyce, trans., Told Round a Brushwood Fire: The Autobiography of Arai Hakuseki (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979), 264–265. © 1979 by UNESCO. Reprinted by permission of Princeton University Press.
37–38. Yamamoto Tsunetomo, Hagakure: The Book of the Samurai (Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1979), 17, 22, 31–34, 52, 62.
38–39. Katsu Kokichi, Musui's Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai. Trans. by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988), 45–46, 156–157. © 1988 The Arizona Board of Regents. Reprinted by permission of the University of Arizona Press.
40. Kaibara Ekiken, Women and Wisdom of Japan (London: John Murray, 1905), 33–34, 38–39, 45.
41–42. Ihara Saikaku, [The Eternal Storehouse of Japan,] in Anthology of Japanese Literature from the Earliest Era to the Mid-Nineteenth Century, ed. Donald Keene (New York: Grove Press, 1955), 357–358, 361–362. © 1955 by Grove Press, Inc. Used by permission of Grove/Atlantic, Inc.
44. Waka Rintarō, Shiryō Nihon shi (Documents from Japanese history) (Tokyo: Tokyo Hōrei, 1976), 230.
44–45. Bob Tadaski Wakabayashi, Anti-Foreignism and Western Learning in Early-Meiji Japan (Cambridge, Mass.: Council of East Asian Studies, Harvard University Press, 1986), 200–201, 214. Reprinted by permission of the Harvard University Asia Center. © The President and Fellows of Harvard College, 1986.
59. Yukichi Fukuzawa, The Autobiography of Yukichi Fukuzawa (New York: Schocken Books, 1972), 314; song, in Stewart Lone, Army, Empire and Politics in Meiji Japan (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000), 8.
60. Text of oath taken from Robert M. Spaulding, Jr., [The Intent of the Charter Oath,] in Studies in Japanese History and Politics (Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies, 1967), 6–13; preamble adapted from Ryusaku Tsunoda, Wm. Theodore DeBary, and Donald Keene, eds., Sources of Japanese Tradition, II (New York: Columbia University Press, 1958), 137.
60–61. S. Lane-Poole and F. V. Dickins, The Life of Sir Harry Parkes, II (Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 1973), 132–133.
62. Lu, 324.
63–64. Kume Kunitake, Tokumei zenken taishi Bei-M kairan jikki, translated in Peter Duus, The Japanese Discovery of America: A Brief History with Documents (Boston: Bedford Books, 1997), 174–178. Copyright © 1997 by Bedford/St. Martin's, from The Japanese Discovery of America by Peter Duus. Reprinted with permission of Bedford/St. Martin's.
66–67. Mori Lgai, [The Incident at Sakai,] in The Historical Fiction of Mori Lgai, ed. David Dilworth and J. Thomas Rimer (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1977), 145–147.
68–69. Ryusaku Tsunoda, et al, 197–198.
70. Essays of students of Margaret Griffis, in the William Elliot Griffis Collection, Rutgers.
70–71. Itagaki Taisuke, [Memorial on the Establishment of a Representative Assembly,] in W. W. McLaren, ed., Japanese Government Documents, (Tokyo: Asiatic Society of Japan, 1914), 427–432.
71–73. Chiba Takasaburō, [The Way of the King,] in Richard Devine, [The Way of the King,] first published in Monumenta Nipponica, 34, no. 1, 63–72.
73. McLaren, 503.
74. Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies (comp.), The Meiji Japan Through Contemporary Sources, II (Tokyo: CEACS, 1969), 93–94.
75–76. Etsu Inagaki Sugimoto, A Daughter of the Samurai (Boston; Tokyo; Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle, 1966), 25–27.
76. Shibusawa Eiichi, The Autobiography of Shibusawa Eiichi, trans. Teruko Craig (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1994), 139–140.
76–77. Shibusawa Eiichi, Ginkō o sodatete (Building banks), in Gendai Nihon kiroku zenshū (Comprehensive series on contemporary Japanese documents), 8 (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō, 1969), 94–95; translation adapted from Lu, 354–356.
78–79. Nagatsuka Takashi, The Soil, trans. Ann Waswo, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), 47–49. Copyright © 1999 The Regents of the University of California.
79. Donald Keene, ed., Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology (New York: Grove Press, 1956), 56–58.
83. Tokutomi Sohō, in Kenneth Pyle, The New Generation in Meiji Japan: Problems of Cultural Identity, 1885–1895 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1969).
84. Editorial from Tokyo Nichi-Nichi Shimbun, translated in The Tokio Times, February 24, 1877, 95.
85–86. Lu, 352–353.
86–87. Ryusaku Tsunoda, et al, II, 139–140.
87–89. Arthur E. Tiedemann, Modern Japan: A Brief History (Huntington, N.Y.: Krieger, 1980), 109–112.
89–91. Ubukata Toshirō, [Kenpō happu to Nisshin sensō] (Promulgation of the constitution and the Sino-Japanese War), in Tsurumi Shunsuke, ed., Jiyānarizumu no shisō (Journalism thought), vol. 12 of Gendai Nihon shisō taikei (Compilation of modern Japanese thought), ed. Tsurumi Shunsuke (Tokyo: Chikuma Shobō, 1965), 87–91.
91–92. Mutsu Munemitsu, Kenkenroku: A Diplomatic Record of the Sino-Japanese War, 1894–95, Ed./trans. Gordon Berger (Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1982), 251–252. © 1982 by the Japan Foundation.
93. Katsura Tarō, translated in Lone, 46.
93–94. Ian H. Nish, The Anglo-Japanese Alliance: The Diplomacy of Two Island Empires, 1894–1907 (London: The Athlone Press, 1966), 216–217. Korea is substituted for Corea, which was used in the original text.
95–96. Irokawa, 305–306.
97–98. Rubin, 56–57. Reprinted by permission of the University of Washington Press.
98–99. Yorozu Chōhō editorial, November 1, 1892, in Okano Takeo, Meiji genron shi (History of the Japanese press) (Tokyo: Hō Shuppan, 1974), 113. 100–101. Hani Motoko, [Stories of My Life,] trans. Chieko Mulhern, in The Japan Interpreter, XII, no. 3–4 (Summer 1979), 346–347. Originally published in Hani Motoko chosakushū (Collected works of Hani Motoko) (Tokyo: Fujin no Tomosha, 1974).
101. Natsume Soseki, Kokoro (Chicago: Regnery Gateway, 1957), 29–30.
102. Futabata Shimei, Ukigumo, in Japan's First Modern Novel: Ukigumo of Futabatei Shimei, trans. Marleigh Grayer Ryan (New York: Columbia University Press, 1965), 197–198.
103–104. Eiji Yutani, [Nihon no kaso shakai of Gennosuke Yoko yama.] Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1985, 198–200.
104–105. Mikiso Hane, ed., Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Voices of Japanese Rebel Women (New York: University of California Press, 1988), 61, 66, 73. Copyright © by Mikiso Hane.