Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

List of Figures

1.1.The Normal Distribution5
1.2.Average Effect Size Using Higher-Level Questions6
1.3.Categories of Instructional Strategies That Affect Student Achievement7
1.4.Three Elements of Effective Pedagogy10
2.1.Selected Research Results for Identifying Similarities and Differences15
2.2.Definitions17
2.3.Venn Diagram18
2.4.Comparison Matrix19
2.5.Venn Diagram: Pioneer Days and Today21
2.6.Graphic Organizers for Classification22
2.7.Graphic Organizer for Metaphors25
2.8.Graphic Organizer for Analogies28
2.9.Graphic Organizer for Analogies in Use28
3.1.Research Results for Summarizing Strategies30
3.2.Exercise in Summarizing31
A. The Photographic Process31
B. Macrostructure of the Photographic Process31
3.3.Summarizing Strategy: Sample Passage33
3.4.The Narrative Frame35
3.5.The Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame37
3.6.The Definition Frame38
3.7.The Argumentation Frame39
3.8.The Problem/Solution Frame40

-iv-

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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