Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

1
APPLYING THE RESEARCH ON
INSTRUCTION: AN IDEA WHOSE
TIME HAS COME

We educators stand at a special point in time. This is not because a new decade, century, and millennium have begun (although this phenomenon certainly brings new opportunities and complexities). Rather, it is because the [art] of teaching is rapidly becoming the [science] of teaching, and this is a relatively new phenomenon. It may come as a surprise to some readers that up until about 30 years ago, teaching had not been systematically studied in a scientific manner. This is not to say that effective teaching strategies were absent before 1970. Indeed, educators have effectively used Socratic inquiry as an explicit instructional strategy for two and one half millennia. At the beginning of the 1970s, however, researchers began to look at the effects of instruction on student learning. In fact, the decade before was marked by the belief that school really made little difference in the achievement

of students. This was a conclusion of the now famous report entitled Equality of Edu- cational Opportunity published in 1966 (see Coleman et al., 1966). The report is commonly referred to as the [Coleman report] in deference to its senior author, James Coleman. After analyzing data from some 600,000 students and 60,000 teachers in more than 4,000 schools, Coleman and his colleagues concluded that the quality of schooling a student receives accounts for only about 10 percent of the variance in student achievement.

To understand what this means, consider the following example: Assume you are analyzing the science achievement scores for a group of 100 eighth-grade students from three different schools. These students will no doubt vary greatly in their science achievement. Some will have very low scores, some very high scores, and some in the middle. The findings from the

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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