Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

2
IDENTIFYING SIMIL ARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES
AND DIFFERENCES
SUMMARIZING AND
NOTE TAKING
REINFORCING EFFORT AND
PROVIDING RECOGNITION
HOMEWORK AND
PRACTICE
NONLINGUISTIC
REPRESENTATIONS
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND
PROVIDING FEEDBACK
GENERATING AND
TESTING HYPOTHESES
CUES, QUESTIONS, AND
ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

As part of their study of the decade of the 1960s, students in Mrs. Jackson's
American History class read about and listened to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s
speech,[I Have A Dream.] Mrs. Jackson knew that these students had been
exposed to this speech many times before and, therefore, was not sur-
prised when they offered only predictable comments in the class discussion.
In order to help students understand the speech in a different way and to
build on the knowledge they had gained throughout the year, Mrs. Jackson
presented the following incomplete analogy:

[I Have a Dream] was to the Civil Rights Movement as

______________________was to_______________________.

In small groups, students were to complete the analogy using another his-
torical event or document in the first blank and a movement or event in
the second blank. The students were asked to be ready to explain their
completed analogy to the entire class.

To Mrs. Jackson's surprise, students were quite adept in designing and ex-
plaining their analogies. To the students' surprise, this activity deepened their
understanding of the effect the [I Have a Dream] speech had on the Civil
Rights Movement.

Mrs. Jackson has engaged her students in a complex and abstract form of identifying similarities and differences by having them generate and explain analogies.

-13-

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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