Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

3
SUMMARIZING AND NOTE TAKING
IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES
AND DIFFERENCES
SUMMARIZING AND
NOTE TAKING
REINFORCING EFFORT AND
PROVIDING RECOGNITION
HOMEWORK AND
PRACTICE
NONLINGUISTIC
REPRESENTATIONS
COOPERATIVE
LEARNING
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND
PROVIDING FEEDBACK
GENERATING AND
TESTING HYPOTHESES
CUES, QUESTIONS, AND
ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

In previous years, Mrs. Zimmers taught her middle school unit on mythol-
ogy by assigning the students a selection of myths to read and asking them
to construct their own myths using a story structure in which many of the
characters undergo dramatic changes. While the students often enjoyed
the storytelling nature of the task, they seemed to miss the deep historical
importance of the myths to the people who created them. This year she
had a plan to change things. To gain a deeper understanding about the his-
tory of ancient Greece, students were asked to read two essays and view
a short film on Greek mythology. Additionally, students were asked to sum-
marize each essay as homework. Finally, Mrs. Zimmers asked students to
turn in the notes they took during the film.

Mrs. Zimmers was taken aback with what she received. When she read
the first summaries, she realized that many students did not really summa-
rize the information or did not understand the nature and purpose of a
summary. They simply reworded information from the text and made no
attempt to translate it into a synthesized form. To her dismay, she concluded
that her students did not know how to summarize. Mrs. Zimmers set for
herself the goal of teaching her students a specific summarizing strategy.
Mrs. Zimmers also realized that she would have to teach note-taking strate-
gies and skills. Most of the students took far too few notes, although a cou-
ple of students tried to record everything they heard or read.

After realizing a skill weakness in her students, Mrs. Zimmers has chosen to explicitly teach two of the most useful academic skills students can have: summarizing and note taking. We have assigned these skills to the same instructional category because they both

-29-

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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