Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

8
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND
PROVIDING FEEDBACK
IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
SUMMARIZING AND NOTE TAKING
REINFORCING EFFORT AND PROVIDING RECOGNITION
HOMEWORK AND PRACTICE
NONLINGUISTIC REPRESENTATIONS
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK
GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

Every year Mr. Hall gave the same motivational speech to the students in
his Advanced Placement United States History course reminding them that
although they were the ones taking the AP test, their scores reflected his
teaching. In the past, classes had performed reasonably well, but he always
felt a pang of guilt; he wanted to do more to help students pass the test
with 4s and 5s. However, his previous attempts had not produced the re-
sults he wanted.

One summer, he outlined all the units in the chapters in great detail,
color-coded them, and gave the outline to his students as study guides. The
students found them useful, but became dependent on the guides. They also
admitted that they ignored any information that he had not included in his
outlines.

Another year, he focused on improving their study skills by offering Sat-
urday classes on how to take tests, but students didn't seem to do better
on the AP test. This year, instead of constructing a detailed outline, Mr. Hall
wrote generalizations for each era they would study in class. He used the
generalizations that were provided in the national standards and bench-
marks. For each era, he also provided a set of key vocabulary terms, high-
lighting the ones that would recur throughout various units.

He explained to students that they should create a study journal for
themselves in which they identified their own learning goals based on the
generalizations he provided. He modeled the process for the first unit,
showing them how to use the generalizations as a springboard for identify-
ing the specific things they wanted to learn. He referred to this whole
process as [goal setting for learning.] Most of the students were a bit con-
fused at first because in the past they had set goals focused on [tasks,] not
on their [understandings.] The unit on the Civil War included generaliza-
tions on what led to the conflict.

-92-

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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