Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

By Robert J. Marzano; Debra J. Pickering et al. | Go to book overview

9
GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
IDENTIFYING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
SUMMARIZING AND NOTE TAKING
REINFORCING EFFORT AND PROVIDING RECOGNITION
HOMEWORK AND PRACTICE
NONLINGUISTIC REPRESENTATIONS
COOPERATIVE LEARNING
SETTING OBJECTIVES AND PROVIDING FEEDBACK
GENERATING AND TESTING HYPOTHESES
CUES, QUESTIONS, AND ADVANCE ORGANIZERS

Tisha, a 2nd grader, stared up at the sky for a long time and then announced,
[I think we are going to have a bad storm. It was hot, but now feel how cold
it is and look at those cumulus clouds.] Her grandma stared in amazement.
[Aren't you the weather girl today! Where did you learn all that?] Tisha ex-
plained that her teacher had been discussing weather with them all year.

[Our teacher said that weather was there for us to study all year, so why
study it all at once and then probably forget it? She said we weren't just
going to learn it, we were going to use what we learned. Besides, it means
we get to go outside to learn.]

Tisha's teacher periodically taught her students about specific weather
patterns. Approximately once every two weeks, the class would look at a
weather map on the Internet, discuss what had been happening during the
last 24 hours, then go outside and observe the sky, once in the morning and
once in the afternoon. The students would then predict what they thought
would happen between the end of the school day and the next morning.
They would also explain the reasoning behind their predictions.

During the first few minutes of the following morning, students discussed
their hypotheses and the extent to which they were correct. If their pre-
dictions were accurate, they identified the observations that helped them
the most. If their predictions were inaccurate, students tried to figure out
what they missed or misunderstood.

Tisha's teacher has used the topic of weather to engage students in one of the most powerful and analytic of cognitive operations— generating and testing hypotheses.

-103-

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Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Classroom Instruction That Works i
  • Contents iii
  • Contents iv
  • 1: Applying the Research on Instruction 1
  • 2: Identifying Simil Arities and Differences 13
  • 3: Summarizing and Note Taking 29
  • 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition 49
  • 5: Home Work and Practice 60
  • 6: Nonlinguistic Representations 72
  • 7: Cooperative Learning 84
  • 8: Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback 92
  • 9: Generating and Testing Hypotheses 103
  • 10: Cues, Questions, and a Dvance Organizers 111
  • 11: Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge 123
  • 12: Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning 146
  • 13: Afterword 156
  • Appendix 159
  • References 161
  • Index 174
  • About the Authors 177
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