1. Langston Hughes, introduction to Booker T. Washington, Up From Slavery (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1965).
2. Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man (New York: Random House, 1952), 38.
3. The best of the early work is now twenty years old, and it must begin with Aldon D. Morris, The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organiz. ing/or Change (New York: Free Press, 1984). Charles M. Payne offers a powerful account of Mississippians from the 1920s onward struggling bravely for the bet. terment of their lives in his I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradi. tion and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). Of seminal importance, too, is Jack M. Bloom's argument about the slipping of the hold on African Americans by the New South agricultural system, abetted by the infusion of capital from the New Deal that allowed for the mechanization of farms and made superfluous some hundreds of thousands of black and white