DISCOURSES OF CULTURAL POLICY
It is curious that as the security and rights of social citizenship were deliberately weakened in the older industrialized and de-industrializing parts of the world over recent decades, with the neo-liberal assault upon the welfare state, the issue of cultural citizenship rose up the agendas of public and academic debate.
In T.H. Marshall's (1992 ) classic formulation, in the immediate period following the Second World War, the economic rights of trade and the political rights of democracy had to be supplemented by the material entitlements of social security. These were to cover the distresses of ill health, unemployment and old age, in order to eliminate poverty and include everyone in an egalitarian contract. The catalogue of social rights was increasingly extended under 'First World' liberal-democratic, socialdemocratic and welfare regimes, though variably so from country to country, with the USA being the least paternal and the Nordic countries the most paternal. 'Second World' soviet-communist countries claimed a yet more advanced social condition in terms of the state looking after all the needs of all its citizens. In none of these regimes was total equality achieved or even sought. Typically, meritocracy arrangements were made so that the talented could rise through universal secondary education and access higher education. The weak and socially disadvantaged would also be protected and treated with dignity. In Marshall's classic social-democratic agenda, the aim was specifically to reduce class inequality. As that agenda was developed subsequently, policies for removing gender discrimination and racial discrimination were also to become pronounced features of the egalitarian project. Successive questions of further entitlement were raised, not only in terms of social policy but also of cultural policy, for instance to do with access to the arts, multiculturalism and recognition of difference.