RHETORICS OF DEVELOPMENT,
DIVERSITY AND TOURISM
'Development' and 'diversity' are cardinal terms in contemporary rhetorics of cultural policy as broadly conceived. In effect, they bring together economy and culture, a profound site of which coming together is tourism. It is a massive industry across the world. This chapter interrogates the interplay of development, diversity and tourism.
First, it is necessary to say something about rhetoric and why it is relevant to the critical and reflexive analysis of cultural policy. The ancient art of rhetoric was propounded by Aristotle (1991) in fourth-century BC Athens where the virtues of debate in philosophy and politics were regarded highly. 'Rhetoric' refers to the persuasive use of words. Aristotle sought to clarify its various modes and techniques. Acquiring rhetorical skills was considered essential to elite forms of education in Europe until the nineteenth century AD, though the art of public speaking was hardly neglected subsequently in the preparation of leaders. To some extent, however, it became discredited, which is summed up now in the commonplace phrase, 'mere rhetoric'. In the twentieth century attempts were made to revive its explicitly educational and analytical value. In 1936, I.A. Richards (1965 : 23) called for 'a revived Rhetoric' as the 'study of verbal understanding or misunderstanding'. In 1983, Terry Eagleton concluded his magisterial survey, Literary Theory, with the recommendation that the study of Literature in the narrow sense of a canon of consecrated texts should be superseded by the study of rhetoric. To quote him:
Rhetoric, which was the received form of critical analysis all the way from ancient
society to the eighteenth century, examined the way discourses are constructed in
order to achieve certain effects. It was not worried about whether its objects of