Doing Psychological Research: Gathering and Analysing Data

By Nicky Hayes | Go to book overview

4
Observational studies

About observations

Types of observation

Collecting data in observational research

Ethics of observational research

A great deal of psychological research takes the form of observational studies of one kind or another. In observational research, we try to work out what is going on by looking at what happens, and recording it in such a way that we will be able to analyse the relevant factors involved in the situation.


About observations

Experiments, as we saw in the last chapter, can establish causality by manipulating circumstances and producing effects. But other forms of research, including observation, can really only show that two things occur together. If you observe that, say, children in small playgrounds play more aggressively than children in large playgrounds, you haven't necessarily shown that there is a causal link between them. All you may really have shown is that the two things correlate – that they both happen together. The real cause might lie in something quite different (like, say, the effects of poverty or social deprivation). Observations, like most of the other research methods available to psychologists, can only detect correlation, not causality.


Choosing what to observe

Observation may seem easy before you have tried it, but conducting a fully rigorous scientific observation is not as easy as it might seem. One of the first challenges is being very clear about exactly what it is that you are observing. Try going to your local shopping centre or bus station, sitting on a bench, and writing down what you can see.

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Doing Psychological Research: Gathering and Analysing Data
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures ix
  • List of Tables xi
  • List of Worked Examples xiii
  • List of Formulae xiv
  • Introduction xv
  • Acknowledgements xix
  • 1: Approaches to Psychological Research 1
  • Part I - Gathering Data 15
  • 2: Gathering Data for Psychological Research 17
  • 3: Experiments 35
  • 4: Observational Studies 55
  • 5: questionnaire Studies 70
  • 6: Psychometrics 91
  • 7: Interviews 113
  • 8: Case Studies and Ethnography 131
  • 9: Analysing Documents 147
  • Part II - Making Sense of Data 165
  • 10: Introducing Qualitative Analysis 167
  • 11: Grounded Approaches to Qualitative Research 183
  • 12: Conversations, Discourse and Images 201
  • 13: Protocol Analysis and Other Techniques 220
  • 14: Introducing Quantitative Analysis 239
  • 15: Numbers as Descriptive Statistics 257
  • 16: Descriptive Statistics in Visual Images 278
  • 17: Two-Sample Tests 303
  • 18: Correlation and Regression 331
  • 19: Analysis of Variance 349
  • Glossary 366
  • Statistical Tables 379
  • References 387
  • Index 392
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