Doing Psychological Research: Gathering and Analysing Data

By Nicky Hayes | Go to book overview

Glossary

ABBA design: a research design in which one set of participants is given the first condition (A) and then the second (B), while the other set is given condition B first, followed by A.

action research: a method of undertaking social research which acknowledges that the researcher's presence is likely to influence people's behaviour, and so incorporates the researcher's involvement as a direct and deliberate part of the research, with the researcher consciously acting as change agent.

action research cycle: the circular process of action research, which proceeds from a diagnostic stage to the development of a change strategy, to the action and implementation stage, then to the evaluative stage, and back through the cycle again.

ambiguous questions: questions which have more than one possible meaning.

analysis of variance: a statistical technique which allows researchers to locate significant differences between several different samples.

anecdotal evidence: evidence which is purely based on hearsay and personal experience rather than systematic investigation.

ANOVA: the usual abbreviation for analysis of variance.

ANOVA interaction diagram: a type of diagram which illustrates the relationships between variables identified by an ANOVA.

anti-positivism: an approach to research which emphasises the human interpretation of meanings and implications; introduced as a challenge to hard-line positivism.

artefacts: distortions in data or research findings brought about by artificial situations or uncontrolled variables.

attribution: the process of giving reasons for why things happen.

average: a typical score from a set of data. In everyday use, this term generally refers to the mean.

axis: a vertical or horizontal line used to show distances or amounts on a chart or graph.

bar chart: a graphical representation of a set of data which uses columns or bars to indicate different amounts of each category.

behavioural coding: a method of recording observations which involves using different categories. Each unit of behaviour is observed by checking one of those categories.

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Doing Psychological Research: Gathering and Analysing Data
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • List of Figures ix
  • List of Tables xi
  • List of Worked Examples xiii
  • List of Formulae xiv
  • Introduction xv
  • Acknowledgements xix
  • 1: Approaches to Psychological Research 1
  • Part I - Gathering Data 15
  • 2: Gathering Data for Psychological Research 17
  • 3: Experiments 35
  • 4: Observational Studies 55
  • 5: questionnaire Studies 70
  • 6: Psychometrics 91
  • 7: Interviews 113
  • 8: Case Studies and Ethnography 131
  • 9: Analysing Documents 147
  • Part II - Making Sense of Data 165
  • 10: Introducing Qualitative Analysis 167
  • 11: Grounded Approaches to Qualitative Research 183
  • 12: Conversations, Discourse and Images 201
  • 13: Protocol Analysis and Other Techniques 220
  • 14: Introducing Quantitative Analysis 239
  • 15: Numbers as Descriptive Statistics 257
  • 16: Descriptive Statistics in Visual Images 278
  • 17: Two-Sample Tests 303
  • 18: Correlation and Regression 331
  • 19: Analysis of Variance 349
  • Glossary 366
  • Statistical Tables 379
  • References 387
  • Index 392
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