Autism, Brain, and Environment

By Richard Lathe | Go to book overview

Index
The following abbreviations are used: DSM-IV for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, ICD-10 for International Classification of Diseases, issue 10. Figures and tables are denoted by italic page numbers.
2nd to 4th digit ratio 141– 2
5HT (5-hydroxytryptamine) excess
in blood 124, 130, 132– 3
effects on brain 162– 6, 176– 7
and heavy metals 134
and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 134– 5
and kidney damage 133
link to GI problems 134
origins of 133
and tryptophan 130– 1
ACTH (adrenocorticotrophic hormone) 135– 6, 138– 9
Adams, J.B. 95, 190
Ader, R. 117
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) 22, 32, 191, 200
ADI-R see Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised
ADOS-G see Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Generic
adrenal gland 118– 19
cortisol production 135– 7
Afzal, N. 122, 126
age of ASD onset 32– 3, 53– 4, 81– 2
AGRE see Autism Genetic Resource Exchange
Alarcón, M. 43
Alberti, A. 122
alcohol misuse, maternal 88, 198
allergies 145– 6
[alternative splicing] 168– 9
aluminum (Al) 104– 5
and Alzheimer disease 201, 202
Alzheimer disease (AD) 85, 118, 175, 187– 8, 201– 2
Amaral, D. 182
amino acid pathways and heme deficiency 172– 5
amnesia, following limbic damage 74– 5, 84
amygdala 62, 63– 4, 66
abnormalities in Asperger 68
and anxiety 76
effects of TMT exposure 98– 9
enlargement of 67– 8
functional lesions and ASD deficits 82
gender differences in size of 141– 2
and language 78
and neurogenesis 109
and recognition of facial emotion 77
reduced blood flow 83
role in memory 74– 5, 84
role in physiological functions 118– 20
seizure focal origin 79
and social interaction 77– 8
and social status 205
and stomach ulcers 120
androgens
effects of excess 141– 2
and heavy metal toxicity 111, 143
and neuronal damage 167
and stress 141, 143
Angevine, J.B., Jr. 63
[anti-ageing] hormone (DHEA) 139– 40, 144, 167
antibiotic treatment 123, 155, 189
antidepressants 187, 207
anti-epileptic medication 42– 3, 188– 9
and folate depletion 147– 8
and non-seizures 189
taken during pregnancy 44, 88, 96
antifungal treatments 189– 90
anti-opioids 188
anti-oxidants 191, 192, 193
anxiety 76, 119
and antidepressants 187
link to dioxin exposure 112
link to IBS 134
and mercury exposure 201
suppressed by opioid peptides 155
see also stress
appetite 110, 155, 163, 187
arsenic (As) 89, 93, 96, 105, 150
ASD see autism spectrum disorder
Ashwood, P. 122
Asperger, H. 15, 32, 84
Asperger disorder/syndrome
as a proportion of PDDs 21
and anxiety 76
debate on diagnosis 22
declining proportion of ASD 54
diagnostic criteria 24– 5
and limbic abnormalities 68
no evidence of heavy metal exposure 92
original studies 32, 38
association studies 41
asthma 202, 203
ataxia 69, 103
atypical autism see PDD-NOS
Audhya, T. 113
autism
as a proportion of PDDs 21
age of onset 32– 3, 53– 4, 81– 2
anxiety, higher levels of 76
caused by hippocampal damage 83– 4
definition of 15– 16
descriptions of children 15, 16– 17
diagnostic criteria 23– 4
early diagnosis 33– 4
and genetics 35, 37– 46
heritability 39
increasing awareness of 49
male– female ratios 38
preferred diagnosis 34, 49
recovery from 17– 18
rise in prevalence 18, 50– 1, 54– 5
younger age groups 53– 4
Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised (ADI-R) 34
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule – Generic (ADOS-G) 34
Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) 43, 56
autism spectrum disorder (ASD) 15– 16
age of onset 32– 3, 53– 4, 81– 2
difficulties subtyping 35– 6
early diagnosis of 33– 4
gender differences 22, 38
genetic factors 37– 46

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