When two men communicate with each other by word of
mouth, there is a twofold hazard in that communication.
A manager received a written memo. It read in part: "We must keep
the lines of communication open between our departments in
order to ensure the success of this project. Please call me as soon
as possible so that we can discuss schedules and deadlines."
The manager told his assistant, "I'd like to answer, but whoever
wrote this memo forgot to include his name."
We have all heard the cliche´s about communication. But putting the ideas into practice often is much harder than applying the theories. This is more true for project management than in the department.
When you manage a department, you are in constant contact with your staff. Their tasks are well defined and recurring. Your subordinates are focused on performance, and their evaluation depends on how well they execute a narrowly defined range of tasks. A project, by comparison, may be viewed as an intrusion into a well-ordered depart-