"Y tan sólo con nuestra memoria escondida fuimos exiliados."
"We only had our hidden memory when we lived in exile."
Dennis Mesén, Ceremonial Desconocido (San José, Costa Rica, 1996), 59
This Guide supplies information on the censorship of historical thought and the fate of persecuted historians in more than a hundred and thirty countries since 1945. Its aim is to encompass all countries where such censorship and persecution have taken place. The presentation of information under certain countries should not be taken as indicating any view on the status of disputed territory. In addition, notwithstanding sustained efforts to unearth relevant information, some countries or regions that should have been treated are not included in the Guide. The absence of an entry on a particular country in this work does not imply, however, that no censorship of history has occurred there. Although censorship of history is a phenomenon of many times and places, this Guide is limited to the period from 1 January 1945 to 31 December 2000. Information prior to this period is included in three cases only: when historical works published before 1945 were (also) censored after 1945, when historians were victims of censorship or persecution both before and after 1945, and, finally, when censorship or persecution suffered before 1945 could reasonably be assumed to have substantially influenced the historian's fate after 1945. An obvious example of this last possibility is the (political) exile of historians. For reasons of space, however, cases of prewar exile continuing after 1945 are mentioned only briefly at the beginning of an entry. These cases will be covered more extensively in a planned companion volume to this Guide.1
The Guide covers three types of cases: