Three areas of historical research and teaching were of long-standing preoccupation in India: the relations between Hindus and Muslims, the relations between communalism and secularism, and the 1947 partition and the ensuing relations with Pakistan.
|1930–5||In the 1930s and 1940s, Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964), future prime minister of India (1947–64), wrote two history books in prison: Glimpses of World History, Being Further Letters to His Daughter, Written in Prison, and Containing a Rambling Account of History for Young People (two volumes, 1934–35), written between October 1930 and August 1933 in various prisons while he was serving sentences for his anticolonial activities; and The Discovery of India (1946), written between August 1942 and June 1945 when he remained under rigorous confinement after riots following the rejection of the spring 1942 proposals of Sir Stafford Cripps (proposals done to resolve an impasse between the British government and the Indian nationalist leaders). In the first work Nehru cited Benjamin Disraeli on Hugo Grotius: "Other men condemned to exile and capitivity, if they survive, despair; the man of letters may reckon those days as the sweetest of his life". Between 1921 and 1945, Nehru spent nine terms (totaling nine years) in British prisons. Glimpses made him the first non-Western world historian.|
|1946–47||Historian and politician Sir Shafaat Ahmad Khan (1893–1947) was stabbed in Simla by a Muslim extremist. He ultimately died from|