Censorship of Historical Thought: A World Guide, 1945-2000

By Antoon De Baets | Go to book overview

P

PAKISTAN

After General Zia ul Haq assumed power in July 1977, the Education Department started to revise syllabi at all educational levels in order to bring them into line with Islamic ideology and principles. The purged material reportedly included "atheistic" accounts of history. The rewriting of history books began in earnest in 1981, when ul Haq declared that teaching Mutalaa-i-Pakistan (Pakistan Studies) to all degree students was compulsory. The course was based on the Ideology of Pakistan, the creation of a completely Islamized state. Topics that were distorted included the historical origins of Pakistan and its archeological heritage (because of its largely non-Islamic nature); the sacrifices and anticolonialism of the Muslims in British India; the image of Ali Jinnah (1876– 1948), Pakistan's leader in 1947; the role of the ulama (religious scholars) in the nationalistic Pakistan Movement before independence; secularism and regionalism; and the portrayal of Hindus. The 1947–77 period, including the 1948 war over Kashmir (fought when a civilian government was in power), the history of East Pakistan (including the 1971 civil war, the Indian invasion, and Pakistan's partition in December 1971), and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's rule (1971–77), was almost entirely neglected in textbooks. After 1988, under Benazir Bhutto's government, some distortions were rectified; archival traditions and practices were poor.

British India
1946–The book Modern Islam in India: A Social Analysis (London), by Wilfred Cantwell Smith (1916–), Canadian lecturer in Islamic history at the Forman Christian College in Lahore (1940–46), later a professor of comparative religion and Islamic studies at McGill University, Mon-

-370-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Censorship of Historical Thought: A World Guide, 1945-2000
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Abbreviations xv
  • Introduction 1
  • A 39
  • B 59
  • C 88
  • D 188
  • E 191
  • F 202
  • G 212
  • H 254
  • I 269
  • J 310
  • K 321
  • L 335
  • M 339
  • N 358
  • P 370
  • Q 409
  • R 410
  • S 424
  • T 456
  • U 476
  • V 598
  • Y 604
  • Z 620
  • Person Index 627
  • Subject Index 665
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 696

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.