After General Zia ul Haq assumed power in July 1977, the Education Department started to revise syllabi at all educational levels in order to bring them into line with Islamic ideology and principles. The purged material reportedly included "atheistic" accounts of history. The rewriting of history books began in earnest in 1981, when ul Haq declared that teaching Mutalaa-i-Pakistan (Pakistan Studies) to all degree students was compulsory. The course was based on the Ideology of Pakistan, the creation of a completely Islamized state. Topics that were distorted included the historical origins of Pakistan and its archeological heritage (because of its largely non-Islamic nature); the sacrifices and anticolonialism of the Muslims in British India; the image of Ali Jinnah (1876– 1948), Pakistan's leader in 1947; the role of the ulama (religious scholars) in the nationalistic Pakistan Movement before independence; secularism and regionalism; and the portrayal of Hindus. The 1947–77 period, including the 1948 war over Kashmir (fought when a civilian government was in power), the history of East Pakistan (including the 1971 civil war, the Indian invasion, and Pakistan's partition in December 1971), and Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's rule (1971–77), was almost entirely neglected in textbooks. After 1988, under Benazir Bhutto's government, some distortions were rectified; archival traditions and practices were poor.
|1946–||The book Modern Islam in India: A Social Analysis (London), by Wilfred Cantwell Smith (1916–), Canadian lecturer in Islamic history at the Forman Christian College in Lahore (1940–46), later a professor of comparative religion and Islamic studies at McGill University, Mon-|