The framework for teaching is based on the Praxis III criteria developed by the Educational Testing Service (ETS) after extensive surveys of the research literature, consultation with expert practitioners and researchers, wide-ranging job analyses, summaries of the demands of state licensing programs, and fieldwork. The components include those aspects of teaching that are expected of experienced as well as beginning teachers. The research foundation for the Praxis III criteria is summarized here because it is relevant to this framework for teaching. Many of the findings presented derive from a work by Carol Anne Dwyer (1994) called Development of the Knowledge Base for the Praxis III Classroom Performance Assessments Assessment Criteria. This appendix presents in an abbreviated form some results of the extensive research that ETS conducted that is described in detail in that publication.
Author's note:Ann T. DeRosa,an educator in theReadington TownshipSchool District inNew Jersey, contributedto the update of theresearch foundation.
The knowledge base for the assessment criteria used in Praxis III: Classroom Performance Assessments was derived over an extended period (1987 to 1993) from three distinct sources: the [wisdom of practice] (Shulman, 1987) of experienced teachers, the theory and data developed by educational researchers, and the requirements developed by state teacher-licensing authorities. These sources of information are interrelated: both experienced teachers and state licensing bodies draw on the educational research literature for their understanding of good teaching.