It has been said that philosophy can investigate, and tell us many things about, the real world—about matter, living things, animals, human beings, the angels, God—about anything and everything. Many of these things, including human beings, the subject of this book, are things in the physical world. And that is why they can be investigated by the sciences as well.
But philosophy can take us only so far, since philosophy does not use the methods of the sciences—controlled experiments, observational instruments, and measuring devices—which can take us quite a bit further. Together, philosophy and science can give us a considerably more complete account of things in the physical world than philosophy alone, or science alone. And not only that. They give us an account in which philosophy and science serve to help and to correct one another. This is what Professor Kainz has in mind as he writes, in his Introduction, that this book is an attempt at [coordinating philosophical analysis with the givens of empiri- cal science,] an attempt at [bringing about a rapprochement between traditional philosophy and empirical sciences.] By [tradi- tional philosophy] and [philosophical analysis] Professor Kainz means, as he explains, philosophy prior to the [existential phe- nomenology] of thinkers like Husserl, Heidegger, and others, whose writings emphasize subjective, or introspective, experience. This book, Professor Kainz points out, is closer in its approach to more objective systematic classical works, like the treatises on [Philosophical Anthropology] by Kant and Hegel.