Can Personality Traits and
Intelligence Be Inherited?
No man is voluntarily bad; but the bad become bad by reason of
an ill disposition of the body and bad education.… And in the
case of pain too in like manner the soul suffers much evil from the
body. Further, when to this evil constitution of body evil forms of
government are added and evil discourses are uttered in private as
well as in public, and no sort of instruction is given in youth to
cure these evils, then all of us who become bad become bad from
two causes [evil constitution of the body, and bad environment]
which are entirely beyond our control.… But … we should
endeavor as far as we can by education... to avoid vice and attain
A capacity for one-sidedness … bids us to observe things from
one angle only, and if possible to reduce them to a single princi-
ple. In psychology this attitude inevitably leads to explanations in
terms of one particular bias. For instance, in a case of marked
extroversion the whole of the psyche is traced back to environ-
mental influences, while in introversion it is traced back to the
hereditary psychophysical disposition.
—CARL JUNG, Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen
in the Skies.