At What Cost? The Economic Impact of Tobacco Use on National Health Systems, Societies and Individuals : A Summary of Methods and Findings

By The World Bank | Go to book overview

appendix B
Inventory of Data Sources

Due to the time and expense of primary data collection, data availability is of primary concern to tobacco control researchers. Many economic studies are therefore based on the use of published epidemiological data. Accurate and up-to-date national statistics are available in most industrialized nations. For instance, nationally representative surveys of disease and mortality statistics are compiled regularly by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics, with deaths classified by their primary cause and appending data on age and gender of the deceased. Many published cost-of-illness (COI) studies on the economic impact of tobacco use in industrialized countries have used epidemiological data in conjunction with the Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs Software, Release II (SAMMECII) program.

National statistics and information sources in developing countries are fewer and less accurate. Although its use to date in tobacco control research is not well established, researchers should consider using the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) of the World Bank. The LSMS provides information on, among other things, tobacco-related expenditures, health expenditures and socioeconomic status in over 30 developing countries. Moreover, the WHO provides tobacco country profiles that unite economic, epidemiological and policy information for 197 countries in all income categories and geographical regions. These data sources are described in greater detail below.


SAMMEC II

The SAMMEC II software program consists of a spreadsheet that operates within LOTUS 1-2-3 and contains diagnosis-specific relative risks for smoking-related diseases obtained from major prospective studies in the United States. In its design, SAMMEC II adapts national epidemiologic methods for use by U.S. states and local health departments. SAMMEC II permits rapid calculation of deaths, years of potential life lost (YPLL), direct health-care costs, indirect mortality costs, and disability costs associated with cigarette smoking.

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