Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670-1752

By Jonathan I. Israel | Go to book overview

2

Philosophy and the Making of Modernity

1. SPINOZA AND SPINOZISM
IN THE RADICAL ENLIGHTENMENT

Some initial signposting may be helpful to the reader. The philosophes labelled in this work 'radical' were those who, prior to 1752—marking the end date of this present volume—openly opposed not just tyranny, intolerance, credulity, superstition, and ecclesiastical sway, like all men of the Enlightenment, but also the moderate mainstream Enlightenment of Locke, Newton, and Voltaire, rebelling so to speak from the 'left'. That is they broadly denied all miracles and revelations and rejected physico-theology, Lockean empiricism, and providential Deism along with monarchy, (in most cases) aristocracy, and all social, racial, and sexual hierarchy as well. These out-and-out intellectual rebels of the Radical Enlightenment writing in French were Bayle (except in his politics), Fontenelle, Boulainvilliers, Tyssot de Patot, Lahontan, Fréret, Meslier, Du Marsais, Lévesque de Burigny, BoureauDeslandes, de Maillet, Mirabaud, d'Argens, Boindin, Rousset de Missy, JeanFrédéric Bernard (not be confused with Jacques Bernard), Bruzen de La Martinière, Vauvenargues, Buffon, Diderot, d'Alembert, Helvétius, La Beaumelle, Boulanger, Morelly, Mably, d'Holbach, Rousseau prior to the mid 1750s, and La Mettrie in his materialism though not his politics or moral theory.

The main task of this present volume is to analyse the thought of this sizeable group in relation to a Dutch coterie of writers and thinkers who were their immediate predecessors intellectually and ideologically, namely Spinoza, van den Enden, Koerbagh, Meyer, the brothers de La Court, Cuffeler, Beverland, van Balen, Walten, van Leenhof, and Mandeville, as well as smaller circles of English, German, and Italian writers and thinkers broadly classifiable together with the above as radical republicans, 'atheists', materialists, 'Spinozists', or non-providential Deists. The English group figured Blount, Toland, Collins, Bolingbroke, Tindal, and in some respects also Shaftesbury; the Germans, Tschirnhaus, Stosch, Wagner, Wachter, Edelmann, Lau, Hatzfeldt, Johann Lorenz Schmidt, and, in a more underhand, refined, and academic context, Hieronymus Niklaus Gundling and Johann Jakob Schmauss. The Italians included Giannone, Doria, Conti, Radicati, and, arguably, though this remains fiercely contested, many seeing him as a firmly Catholic thinker, that great and representative figure of his age Giambattista Vico.

-43-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670-1752
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 1000

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.