Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670-1752

By Jonathan I. Israel | Go to book overview

6

Locke, Bayle, and Spinoza: A Contest of
Three Toleration Doctrines

1. TOLERATION FROM LOCKE TO BARBEYRAC

The question of toleration constituted a severe problem in Early Enlightenment Europe. The religious stalemate of the Thirty Years War left the German empire in a condition of permanent confessional deadlock with three entrenched, formally acknowledged confessional blocs—Lutheran, Catholic, and Calvinist—solemnized by the Peace ofWestphalia (1648). It also removed all immediate prospect of ending the de facto partition of the Low Countries into opposed Catholic and Protestant entities, or re-establishing protected minority Catholic worship in Scandinavia and the Baltic, or recognized Protestant worship in the Czech lands and Austria. To complicate matters further a century of steady confessionalization had enabled the major confessions to put down such sturdy roots that wherever princes, or city governments, sponsoring one faith were afterwards replaced by successors of another, as in the Palatinate (whence many Calvinists fled after 1685) or Silesia, divergence of prince and people added fresh layers of disparity to the already acute difficulties posed by religious plurality and minorities. Such changes marooned scattered but deeply rooted Protestant communities in areas like Austria, Alsace, Silesia, and Poland where the sovereign was now more militantly Catholic than before and, conversely, ensconced Catholic pockets in areas like States Brabant, eastern Overijssel, and the Lower Rhine duchies of Cleves and Mark where the sovereign was Protestant. There were even Imperial Free Cities, like Augsburg and Ravensburg, where, under the Peace terms, Catholics and Lutherans enjoyed minutely specified equal rights, nurturing a stifling 'parity mania'.1

To complete this bewildering, intractable mosaic of confessional confrontation, suspicion, and tension, there was the effect of commerce which fostered trading communities, especially of Calvinists, Jews, and Greek Orthodox, in major entrepôts and court cities like Hamburg, Venice, Livorno, Vienna, Berlin, Lübeck, Danzig, and Trieste, where petitions for some limited form of legal toleration often precipitated fierce local disputes. In addition to all this, there was the friction generated by sharp

1 Whaley, 'Tolerant Society?', 180, 182.

-135-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Enlightenment Contested: Philosophy, Modernity, and the Emancipation of Man, 1670-1752
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 1000

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.