This work has been informed by the scholarship of numerous individuals whose research is cited here. I am deeply grateful to those scholars for their contributions to our knowledge of affirmative action and its history. I am also grateful to the many students and colleagues whose discussions with me on the topics covered in this book have been extremely valuable. The manuscript was improved as a result of those conversations. I want to thank also the colleagues who read all or part of the manuscript while it was in preparation and offered suggestions for its improvement. They gave generously of their time and are much appreciated. Of course, all errors of fact or judgment that remain are entirely my own. Finally, I want to thank my wife, Vicki, and my sons, John and Eric, for their patience and encouragement as I finished this project. Their love and support have enriched my life beyond words. This book is dedicated to them.