1. For early discussion of the controversy over affirmative action, see U.S. Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Separation of Powers, Hearings: The Philadelphia Plan and S. 931, 91st Congress, 1st Session, October 27–28,1969. For examples of later analyses that give insight into the unfolding of the affirmative action debate, see Charles H. Levine, [Beyond the Sound and Fury of Quotas and Targets,] Public Administration Review, vol. 34, no. 3 (May/June, 1974), pp. 240–41; Thomas Sowell, [Affirmative Action Reconsidered,] The Public Interest, no. 42 (winter 1976), pp. 47–65; and William Raspberry, [Fill in the Numbers Please,] Washington Post, July 15,1983, p. A23.
2. In the mid-1990s, as the debate escalated, the popular press contained numerous articles on the pros and cons of affirmative action. For a sampling of that literature, see B. Drummond Ayres Jr., [Conservatives Forge New Strategy to Challenge Affirmative Action,] New York Times, February 16, 1995, p. Ai; Mary Frances Berry, [The Case for Affirmative Action,] Emerge, vol. 6, no. 7 (May 1995), pp. 28–37, 40–43, 48; John F. Harris and Kevin Merida, [Affirmative Action under Fire: The Public Consensus That Supported Federal Efforts Has Been Imperiled,] Washington Post National Weekly Edition, vol. 12, no. 25 (April 24–30, 1995), pp. 6–7; Jeffrey Rosen, [Affirmative Action: A Solution,] The New Republic, vol. 212, no. 19 (May 8,1995), pp. 20–25; Robert L. Woodson, Sr., [Affirmative Action Has Accomplished Little for Most Blacks,] Emerge, vol. 6, no. 7 (May 1995), pp. 42–43; and James Traub, [The End of Affirmative Action (And the Beginning of Something Better),] New York Times Magazine (May 2,1999), pp. 44–51.
3. The California and Washington state initiatives are reviewed in greater detail in chap. 3. A general discussion of California's Proposition 209 is also contained in J. Edward Kellough, Sally Coleman Selden, and Jerome S. Legge Jr., [Affirmative Action under Fire: The Current Controversy and the Potential for State Policy Retrenchment,] Re-