Conclusions: new directions
Positivism, modernism and gender
A word on cultural criminology
Gender, race and class
Criminology and risk
Criminology and trust
Criminology, the citizen and the state
Criminology, political economy and social capital
The crisis in criminology is a crisis of modernity. The twin pillars of
the modernist project of reason and progress, the use of law in the
control and adjudication of human affairs and the intervention of
government to engineer a just social order totter under the weight
of their own inconsistencies and ineffectiveness.
(Young 1998: 262)
So what does this crisis look like?
The influence of positivism on the criminological agenda has been profound. The desire to produce and work with the objectively measurable facts of crime, as has been shown, is intimately connected with the emergence of criminology as a 'modern' social science. It is also intimately connected with the subject matter of the discipline itself and the diversity of interests that people the discipline.
Lawbreaking behaviour can, to a greater or lesser extent, be measured.