Administrative criminology A term coined by Jock Young to describe the criminological research conducted by the UK Home Office during the 1980s with a focus on managing the problem of crime.
Categorical theory A concern with the ways in which the social construction of the terms 'man' and 'woman' impact on the lives of individuals.
Citizenship A term encompassing those who are included and excluded from the rewards of the social system.
Classical criminology Criminological work that considers the individual as having free will and engaging in crime as a process of rational decision making.
Crime Lawbreaking behaviour.
Criminal victimization survey A sample survey of the general population designed to measure experiences and perceptions of crime. They were developed to offer a picture of the 'dark' figure of crime, that is, crime not reported or recorded in official statistics.
Critical criminology A term used in a variety of ways but in general referring to the kind of criminology that is concerned to unravel the ways in which talk about crime both defines and controls crime as a problem. It pays particular attention to the ways in which the variables of race, class and gender are played out in the criminal justice system.
Critical victimology A term used in a variety of ways, but referring here to the potential use and value of applying the structuration theory of Giddens to the victimization experience.
Cultural criminology A way of thinking about crime that situates our understandings within the processes in which criminal behaviour is creatively produced, interacted with and assigned meaning in a cultural context.
Differential opportunity A term associated with the work of Cloward and Ohlin referring to the different structures of opportunities for achieving both legitimate and illegitimate goals within any particular community.
Functionalism A view of society as interdependent parts whose consensual coexistence is necessary for the adequate functioning of the whole.