In 1999, the publication of the National Curriculum Orders for Citizenship established a new foundation subject in the revised National Curriculum. The inclusion of citizenship as a discrete subject was a direct result of the publication of the Final Report of the Advisory Group on Citizenship, now known as the Crick Report (Advisory Group on Citizenship 1998). When the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) drew up the Orders, which included the programmes of study and end of key stage descriptors, the then Department for Education and Employment (DfEE) set up a Ministerial Working Party in 2000 to oversee the introduction of the new subject.
At Key Stage 1, citizenship was introduced as part of the non-statutory framework for personal, social and health education (PSHE) in August 2001 (see Chapter 23). In August 2002, citizenship was introduced as part of the non-statutory PSHE framework at Key Stage 2 and as part of the National Curriculum at Key Stage 3. It was introduced as part of the statutory National Curriculum at Key Stage 4 in August 2004. The establishment of the Ministerial Working Party gave secondary schools two years to audit their practice and devise their individual responses to citizenship provision at Key Stage 3, in preparation for its introduction at Key Stage 4.
In fairness to many schools, provision for the subject already existed, either for historical reasons or because schools had implemented the non-statutory cross-curricular themes of the National Curriculum. These themes had been introduced in 1990 to augment the subject-based content of the National Curriculum. The five themes were: health education, citizenship, economic and industrial understanding, careers education and guidance, and environmental education. Schools were encouraged to include these 'themes' across the curriculum. In reality, with no official