The Story of Christian Music: From Gregorian Chant to Black Gospel : an Authoritative Illustrated Guide to All the Major Traditions of Music for Worship

By Andrew Wilson-Dickson | Go to book overview

Footnotes

Biblical quotations are from The Jerusalem Bible, London, 1966.

Book entries in bold are especially helpful for further reading.


Introduction:
The Power of Music

1 1 Samuel 16:14–23.

2 R Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy, edited by R. Jackson, London, 1972, volume 2, page 117, and compare with Psalm 29:6, 96:11–12, 98:7–8, 114:4.

3 M. Hood, The Etbnomusico- logist, McGraw-Hill, 1971, page 15.

4 O. Sacks, The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat, London, 1985, page 176.

5 O. Sacks, page 173.

6 O. Sacks, page 170.

7 2 Samuel 6:5

8 Romans 1:20.

9 R Vaughan Williams, National Music and Other Essays, Oxford, 2nd edition, 1987, page 206.

10 P.M. Hamel, Through Music to the Setf Tisbury, Wilts, 1978, page 89.

11 Words of the composer Karlheinz Stockhausen and recorded in R Dufallo, Trackings, Oxford, 1989, page 213.

12 Clement of Alexandria (about 150–215AD), Protrepticus 1:1–3, quoted in J. McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, Cambridge, 1987, page 30.

13 See A. Storr, The Dynamics of Creation, London, 1972, page 100.

14 T.S. Eliot, The Literary Essays of Ezra Pound, London, I960, pages 43 and 45.

15 This style of preaching is recorded on The Gospel Ship, New World Records, New York, no. NW294.

16 Quoted in B. Chatwin, The Songlines, London, 1987, page 302. Bruce Chatwin includes other similar observations well worth reading.

17 J. Hullah, The History of Modern Music, London, 1875, pages 5 and 7.

18 H. Cole, The Changing Face of Music, Oxford, 1978, page 92.

19 Revelation 5:9 and 7:9.


Part 1: The Birth of
Christian Music

Chapter 1: Music In
The Old Testament

1 Numbers 21:17–18.

2 B. Thomas, Arabia Felix, London, 1932, page 298.

3 Exodus 17:16.

4 Numbers 10:35–36.

5 Exodus 15:20–21.

6 1 Samuel 18:6–7.

7 2 Samuel 6:5–6, New Jerusalem Bible, London, 1985.

8 1 Chronicles 15.

9 1 Chronicles 16:8–36.

10 2 Chronicles 5:12–13.

11 S. Langdon, Babylonian Liturgies, Paris, 1913 page xii.

12 Ecclesiasticus 50:1–21.

13 Tamid VU:3–

14 Talmudian tractate Arakin 11:3.

15 Quoted in W.O.E. Oesterley, TheJews andjudaism during the Greek period, London, 1941, page 205.

16 Psalm 18 of the Dead Sea Scrolls, quoted in A Sendrey, Music in Ancient Israel, London, 1969, page 193. See also Isaiah 16:11.


The Psalms in Temple
Worship

1 Tamid VQ:4.

2 Psalm 119:147–148.

3 Psalm 136, Deuteronomy 27:16–26.

4 C. Sachs: The Rise of Music In the Ancient World New York, 1944, page 98; Sendrey, page 438–40.

5 Foreword to the P roceedings of the 5th International Church Music Congress, 1966, and quoted inj. Overath, Sacred Music and Liturgy Reform after Vatican U, Rome, 1969.


Music in the Synagogue

1 Nehemiah 8, 2 Chronicles

7:7–9.

2 Acts 18:4.

3 E. Werner, The Sacred Bridge, London, 1959, page 24– 25; A Sendrey, page 181.

4 E. Werner, page 25.

5 Ekphonesis was a method of chanting continued in the Byzantine Church. See chapter 29.

17 M. Priestley, Music Therapy in Action, London, 1975, page

19.

18 Joshua 6:1–20.

19 2 Kings 3:15.

20 The nature of music and its capacity to symbolize and thereby to 'increase our grasp and mastery of reality] is discussed in chapter 11 of A Storr, The Dynamics of Creation, London, 1972. See particularly page 144.


Chapter 2: Music in
the Early Church

1 Matthew 21:12.

2 See Acts 24.14–16, 26:4–8.

3 Described in Acts 15.

4 See E. Wemer, The Sacred Bridge, London, 1959, page 79.

5 E. Werner, pages 83–94, 156–158.

6 Ephesians 5:19.

7 Augustine, Ennarrationes in psalmosTIA, quoted in J. McKinnon, Music in Early Christian Literature, Cambridge, 1987, page 158.

8 Revelation 5:9–10, 19:1.

9 Revelation 19:6–9.

10 Luke 1:46–55, 67–79, Luke 2:29–32.

11 1 Peter 1:3–5, 1 Timothy 3:16, Philippians 2:6–11.

12 Pliny the Younger, Letter 10.16, quoted inj. McKinnon, Music in early Christian Literature, Cambridge, 1986, page 27.

13 Pseudo-Basil, Commentary on Isaiah 5:158, quoted in J. McKinnon, page 70. The passage being commented on is Isaiah 5:11–12.

14 Arnobius (d. about 330AD), Adversus nationes 2:42, quoted in J. McKinnon, page 49.


The spread of
Christianity

1 E. Pagels, The Gnostic Gospels, London, 1980, page 76.

2 E. Pagels, page 99.


Chapter 3:
The Beginning of the
Middle Ages

1 In the motuproprioof 1571, Pope Pius V wrote, 'let [chants] be sung in the Spanish kingdoms according to the form of the Church of Toledo which has been handed down from a most ancient time'. See RF. Haybum, Papal Legislation on Sacred Music, Collegeville, Minnesota, 1979, page 35.


Worship in Fifth-century
Jerusalem

1 Quoted in P. Weiss and R Taruskin, Music in the Western World, London, 1984, page 21–23, and (in another more extensive translation) J. McKinnon, page 113.


Chapter 4: The
Monastic Tradition

1 Augustine, Confessions translated by R.S. Pine-Coffin, London, 1961, page 191.

2 J. McKinnon, page 132.


Chapter 5: Music of
the Spheres: the
Medieval World-view

1 Letter to the Romans 1:20.

2 T.H. White, The Book of Beasts, London, 1969, page 168.

3 Pseudo-Origen, Selecta in psalmos 52:2–5, quoted in

J. McKinnon, page 38.

4 Genesis 6:15.

5 Revelation 13:18. The books of Daniel and Revelation are closely linked and rich in number symbolism.

6 The only book of Platonic dialogue known to the Middle Ages was Timaeus, quoted in P. Weiss and R Taruskin, Music in the Western World London, 1984, page 9.

7 Quoted in P. Weiss and R. Taruskin, page 33- Boethius (about 480–524AD) was a Roman philosopher and a Christian whose writings on music formed the basis of the philosophy of music for hundreds of years.

8 Scientific observation on the greatest and smallest scales (astro- and sub-atomic physics) show that the cosmos has indeed a harmoniousness, but of a complexity far beyond the imaginations of medieval astronomers and philosophers. At the same time, some recent discoveries might not surprise them so much. The sun's turbulent surface has excited much interest, as it appears to be harmoniously synchronised by sound vibrations deep in the sun's interior. Its study has created a new discipline, helioseismology, dedicated in only a slightly new sense to studying the 'harmony of the spheres'.


Chapter 6: Music for
the Liturgy

1 Corinthians 11:26.

See for instance G. Every, The Mass, Dublin, 1978.


The Development of
Notation

There is ample evidence from this period onwards of the use of boys in the cathedral choirs of Medieval Europe. The assertion in Psalm 8 that the Lord's majesty was recounted by children and sucklings flactentiumj was an important justification for the foundation of choir-schools whose education set their inmates on the road to a career in the Church. The thoroughness of their musical training allowed them to take responsibility for some of the most complex types of the chant—including polyphony. See also J. Quasten, Music and Worship in pagan and Christian antiquity, Washington DC, 1983–


Chapter 7: From the
Ear to the Page

1 P. Weiss and R Taruskin, Music in the Western World London, 1984, page 41.

2 The very effective techniques used in early Christian times to marshall the brain's huge potential for memorisation are described in F. Yates, The Art of Memory, Harmondsworth, 1969.

3 1 Corinthians 12:10.

4 Augustine, Ennarrationes in Psalmos 32 and 99, quoted in J. McKinnon, pages 157 and 158.

5 quoted in P. Weiss and R. Taruskin, page 46.

6 From a troped Kyrie from Salisbury Cathedral, and quoted in W.T. Marrocco and N. Sandon, Medieval Music, Oxford, 1977, page 29.

7 See J.E. Stevens, Words and Music in the Middle Ages, Cambridge, 1986, chapter 9.

8 Quoted in H. Cole, Sounds and Signs, Oxford, 1974, page 149.


Chapter 8:
From Gregorian Chant
to Polyphony

1 Anonymous IV, quoted in the Pelican History of Music, volume 1, London, 1982, page 224.

2 Quoted in C. Wright, Music and Ceremony at Notre Dame of Paris, 500–1550, Cambridge, 1989, page 339.

3 Quoted in P. Weiss and R Taruskin, Music in the Western World London, 1984, page 69.

4 The complexities of modal rhythmic notation are described in W. Apel, The Notation of Polyphonic Music, Cambridge, Mass., 5th edition, 1961.

5 Quoted in P. Weiss and R Taruskin, page 62.

6 Quoted in P. Weiss and R Taruskin, page 71.

7 Franco of Cologne, Ars Mensurabilis Musicae, chapter 11. Further extracts from this important treatise can be found in O. Strunk, Source Readings in Music History, New York, 1950, pages 139–159.


Rich Church: Poor
People

1 P.B. Johnson, A History of Christianity, London, 1976, page 228.

2 P.B. Johnson, page 213.

3 P.B. Johnson, page 238.


Chapter 9:
Wycliffe's Challenge
to the Church

1 Hoquetuswas the practice of sharing out short phrases or single notes of melody between two players or singers. The word is related to 'hiccup'.

2 J. Wycliffe, Sermon on the Feigned Contemplative Life, quoted in E. Routley, The Church and Music, London, 1967, page 105.


Part 2: Renaissance
and the Reformation

Chapter 10: Luther
and the Reformation

1 Quoted in O. Chadwick, The Reformation, Harmondsworth, 1972, page 56.

2 Quoted in F. Blume, Protestant Church Music, London, 1975, page 10.

3 For further details of Luther's intentions, see C. Halter and

C. Schalk, A Handbook of Church Music, St. Louis, 1978, chapter 2.

4 Quoted in C. Halter and C. Schalk, page 64.

5 F. Blume, page 10.

6 F. Blume, footnote to page 33.


Lutheran song

1 All these have been published in facsimile this century, at Kassel (1957), Leipzig (1914), Kassel (1954), and Kessel (1929) respectively. See F. Blume, page 760.


Chapter 11 The Swiss
Reformers—the
Calvinist Tradition

1 See Calvin in translation in P. Weiss and R Taruskin, Music in the Western World London, 1984, pages 107–109.


The Genevan Psalter

1 Calvini, Opera Selecta, 2:15.


Chapter 12:
The Reformation in
England

1 See W.H. Frere and W.P.M. Kennedy, 'Visitation Articles and Injunctions of the Period of the Reformation', Alcuin Club Collections, 14–16.

2 These included churches and cathedrals at Arundel, Higham Ferrare, Warwick, Beverley and Ripon. See P. Le Huray, Music and The Reformation in England, Cambridge, 1978, page 13.

3 See the Lincoln Cathedral Injunctions of 1548, quoted in P. Le Huray, page 9.

4 J.G. Nichols, The Diary of Henry Machyn, Camden Society Publications, London, 1848, page 115.

5 The praise of musicke the profit and delight it bringeth to man and other creatures of God And the necessity of it in the service & Christian Churcbe of God British Museum MS 18B. xbc, quoted more fully in M.C. Boyd, Elizabethan Music and Musical Criticism, Pennsylvania, 1940, page 19–20.

6 Quoted in H. Benham, Latin Church Music c 1460–1575, London, 1977, page 165.

7 T. Morley, A Plaine and Easie Introduction to PracticalI Mustek, 1597, edited by RA Harman, London, 1963, page 293. The comment has some resonances years later with the attitudes of the Tractarians of the Victorian era.

8 Quoted in C. Hogwood and R Luckett, Music in Eighteenth Century England Cambridge, 1983, page 23.

9 Letter to Peter Martyr from John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury, 1560, in H. Robinson, Zurich Letters, volume I, Parker Society, 1845, page 71.

-247-

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