Witnessing and Testifying: Black Women, Religion, and Civil Rights

By Rosetta E. Ross | Go to book overview

3
Giving the Movement Life

Black Women's Grassroots Activism

Because they were educated, Ella Baker and Septima Clark had relative access to the middle and upper classes among both African Americans and other groups in the United States. Notwithstanding financial and racial limits on their choices, the factor of education and the era in which they lived presented Baker and Clark professional and civic opportunities and access to travel that were unheard of for slave and free antebellum Black women, as well as for women of the Reconstruction era. Moreover, their education and access to the Black middle classes positioned them for their travel and work, while also making possible the nature of their civil rights contributions. In spite of these influences of social class, however, religious and ideological commitments stimulated Baker and Clark's activism as practices of racial uplift and social responsibility. Throughout their lives both Ella Baker and Septima Clark sought to improve circumstances of African Americans and organized and educated persons in efforts to change society. Emphasizing the importance of empowering the masses—local people—they conceived, carried out, and passed on values and practices that came to define and in some measure systematize programs of the Civil Rights Movement.

Because of their important role as architects of the Movement, Baker and Clark did not also manage and execute each strategy. As Clark once observed, "I was directing the work at Highlander, and that work took me into so many different places that I would not have the time to do the day-by-day teaching."1 The work of executing Movement strategies, like "day-by-day teaching" in citizenship schools, proceeded as other Movement participants engaged the

-89-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Witnessing and Testifying: Black Women, Religion, and Civil Rights
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 294

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Author Advanced search

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.