A NEW DAY
THE SECOND BROWN DECISION deeply disappointed
Thurgood Marshall and the other NAACP lawyers. They believed the lack of a specific deadline would allow states to delay desegregation indefinitely. Their fears would prove to be justified.
By 1955, more white schools had opened their doors to black students. The younger sister of Linda Brown, whose father had filed the Kansas school segregation case, attended the once all-white Sumner Elementary School in Topeka.
But in many areas of the South, officials used all kinds of tactics to delay desegregation. School districts passed [freedom of choice] policies. These laws allowed students to choose the school they wanted to attend—if there was room. White officials made sure that white schools were filled when blacks applied.
Other school systems required students to pass difficult tests and fill out complex forms before they could move to another school. This made it difficult for blacks to transfer to white schools. If they failed the tests, black students faced more red tape and court trials.
Violent demonstrations prevented other black students from entering white schools. Dorothy Counts, the first black girl to go to a white school in Charlotte, North Carolina, described her ordeal: [I started walking toward