D (Codex Bezae).See TEXTS AND MSS OF THE NT.
D (Deuteronomic Source).See CRITICISM II.
DABAREH dab'ə-rə (Josh. 21:28, AV); DABERAH (NEB). See DABERATH.
DABBESHETH dab'ə-sheth "Heb. dabbešeṯ-'hump'"; AV DABBASHETH. A town on the boundary of the territory allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:11). It may be modern Tell esh-Shammana E of Jokneam. The name may indicate that the town was built on a hill.
D. H. MADVIG
DABERATH dab'ə-rath "Heb. dāḇeraṯ-'pasture'"; AV also DABAREH (Josh. 21:28), NEB DABERAH. A town in that part of Galilee which Joshua allotted to the tribe of Issachar. It was given to the Gershonites of the tribe of Levi (Josh. 21:28; 1 Ch. 6:72) and is named in defining the eastern boundary of Zebulun (Josh. 19:13). In NT times it was known as Dabarittha, and it has been identified with modern Daburiyeh at the foot of Mt. Tabor on the northwest. Perhaps Daberath is the town called Rabbith in Josh. 19:20.
D. H. MADVIG
DABRIA da'brē-ə "Lat. Dabria". One of the five who wrote down the visions of Esdras, described (2 Esd. 14:24) as "trained to write rapidly."
DACUBI da-ku'bī (1 Esd. 5:28, NEB); AV DACOBI. See AKKUB 2.
DADDEUS da-dē'əs (1 Esd. 8:46, AV). See IDDO 1.
DAGGER.See WEAPONS OF WAR.
DAGON dā'gon "Heb. dāgôn-(see below)". One of the gods of the Philistines. It was to Dagon that they offered thanks at Gaza when Samson fell into their hands (Jgs. 16:23), and to his temple (Heb. bêṯ-dāgôn) in Ashdod that they brought the ark after capturing it at Aphek (1 S. 5: If.). The ark was left in the temple for two nights, but Dagon was found lying on his face each morning, the second time with head and hands severed (1 S. 5:3–5).
There was also a temple of Dagon at Beth-shan, where the Philistines fastened the head of Saul after the battle of GilboaU Ch. 10:10;cf. 1 S. 31:10). During the excavations at Beth-shan, two temples were discovered in level V, which the excavator suggested might have been those of Dagon and Ashtaroth mentioned in these passages.
The god Dagon is probably to be identified with the Dagan of the ancient inscriptions. He was a grain god and the principal deity of the middle Euphrates region, as is shown in the Mari archives of the 18th cent. B.C., where the name Dagan occurs frequently, not only of the deity but also as an element in compound personal names and as the name of a month. The excavations at Mari have uncovered a temple to him. His cult was already known in southern Mesopotamia in the 3rd millennium B.C., where its center was at PuzuriashDagan, modern Drehem. Sargon, Naram-Sin, and Hammurabi attribute their conquests in the middle Euphrates area to his support. His importance in Babylonia may account for the substitution of Gk. Dagōn by the LXX for Heb. bēl in Isa. 46:1, probably referring to Marduk the principal god of Babylon. He is attested in the West in the fourteenth-century documents from Ugarit (Râs Shamrah), and a temple dedicated to him was found in the excavations there.
The original meaning of the name is unknown; the theories, found already in the writings of Jerome, that it derives from either Heb. dāg, "fish," or dāgān, "grain," are unsubstantiated. It is more probable that the noun dāgān, which occurs also in the sense of "grain" in Ugaritic and Phoenician, was derived from the name of the god.
Bibliography.-E. Dhorme and R. Dussaud, Les anciennes religions orientales,II (1949), 165–67, 173, 364f.; E. Dhorme, "Les Avatars du dieu Dagon,"Académie des Inscriptions et des Belles Lettres (Apr/June, 1950), pp. 186–195;ARI,pp. 74, 106; G. R. Driver, The Babylonian Laws,II (1955), 140.
T. C. MITCHELL
DAILY. The Heb. yôm beyôm means "all day long" rather than "daily" (AV) in such passages as Ps. 42:10; 56:lf.; 72:15; 74:22; 86:3; 88:17; Jer. 20:7f.; alsoyômām, Ps. 13:2.
DAILY BREAD. The meaning of Gk. epioúsios in Mt. 6:11; Lk. 11:3 (the Lord's Prayer) has been subject to a variety of interpretation and conjecture. The English versions render "daily," with the marginal suggestion in both the RSV and the NEB "for the morrow." The RV mg. suggests "for the coming day" or "needful." In the Syriac versions the meaning is "continual." Many writers see