The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society

By Linda Nochlin | Go to book overview

ity" of the film, that the possibilities of Frédéric's ambitious, realistic, multipartite compositions achieve their fullest development.


Notes
1.
The triptych is now in the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. The work is dated 1895 but is generally thought to have been painted from 1895-1897. The best recent study of Frédéric's work, including this painting, is that of Maria M. Müller, "Léon Frédéric: Darstellung des Landlebens und der Unterschichten" in the exhibition catalogue, Arbeit und Alltag: Soziale Wirklichkeit in der Belgiscben Kunst: 1830-1914, Berlin, Neue Gesellschaft fur Bildende Kunst, 1979, pp. 248-57. Also see the exhibition catalogue, Belgian Art: 1880-1914, Brooklyn Museum, 1980, pp. 102-6, and bibliographical references, p. 252; and the article by Fernand Khnopff, "A Belgian Painter: Léon Frédéric", The International Studio 31 ( 1907): 171-81. I am grateful to Jean F. Buyck, David Stark, and Kirk Varnedoe for their assistance in the preparation of this article.
2.
In a 1925 newspaper poll, he was voted Belgium's most popular living artist ( Belgian Art: 1880-1914, p- 103). Nevertheless, critics were not always positive in their opinion of Frédéric's work. See, for example, the rather negative and patronizing account in Paul Colin La Peinture belge depuis 1830 ( Brussels, 1930), pp. 254-58.
3.
For a study of this phenomenon, see Klaus Lankheit, Das Triptychon als Pathosformel, in Abhandlungen der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaft, 4, 1959.
4.
For an illustration of this work, see Bettina Brand, "Belgische Kunst der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts in der Auseinandersetzung mit Religion und Kirche", in Arbeit und Alltag, fig. 14, p. 208.
5.
For an illustration, see Anita Schwandt, "Leben auf dem Lande: Eugeen Laermans, soziale Wirklichkeit und Bildaussage", in Arbeit und Alltag, fig. 3, pp. 260-61.
6.
This euphoric description is cited by Khnopff, The International Studio, p. 176. There is much more.
7.
Gunther Sander, August Sander; Photographer Extraordinary, trans. M. OberliTurner ( London, 1973), n.p.
8.
Bruce Laughton, "The British and American Contributions to Les Vingt, 1884- 1893", Apollo 69 ( Nov. 1967): 375.
9.
Ford Madox Hueffer study, entitled Ford Madox Brown: A Record of His Life and Work, reproduced Work opposite p. 189. The painting is now in the City Art Gallery, Manchester. For a lengthy account of the painting, see the exhibition catalogue, Ford Madox Brown, 1821-1893, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1964, no. 25, pp. 18-20.
10.
Belgian Art, pp. 30-33, and Arbeit und Alltag, passim.
11.
See Nancy Mowll Matthews's doctoral dissertation on Mary Cassatt and the modern Madonna image ( New York University, Institute of Fine Arts, 1980) for an interesting discussion of this phenomenon, which the author also convincingly relates to literary works of the time, like Zola's Fécondité of 1889 (p. 194).

-139-

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The Politics of Vision: Essays on Nineteenth-Century Art and Society
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Illustrations vi
  • Acknowledgments x
  • Introduction xii
  • Notes xxiii
  • 1- The Invention of the Avant-Garde: France, 1830-1880 1
  • Notes 17
  • 2- Courbet, Oller, and a Sense Of Place: the Regional, The Provincial, and the Picturesque In 19th-Century Art 19
  • Notes 32
  • 3- The Imaginary Orient 33
  • Notes 57
  • 4- Camille Pissarro: The Unassuming Eye 60
  • Notes 74
  • 5- Manet's Masked Ball at the Opera 75
  • Notes 92
  • 6- Van Gogh, Renouard, And The Weavers' Crisis in Lyons 95
  • 7- Léon Frédéric And The Stages of a Worker's Life 120
  • Notes 139
  • 8- Degas and the Dreyfus Affair: A Portrait of the Artist As an Anti-Semite. 141
  • Notes 164
  • 9- Seurat's La Grande Jatte: An Anti-Utopian Allegory 170
  • Notes 190
  • Index 194
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